Identifying the CentOS Release version

How to check CentOS version

There are several ways on how to check what version of CentOS is running on your system. The simplest way to check for the CentOS version number is to execute the cat /etc/centos-release command. Identifying the accurate CentOS version may be required to help you or your support team to troubleshoot your CentOS system.

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How to query packages information with the rpm package manager

RPM is the recursive acronym for RPM Package Manager: it is the default low level package manager in some of the most famous and most used Linux distributions, such as Fedora, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS, OpenSUSE and their derivatives. The software, as you can expect, is free and open source; when invoked with the -q option it can be used to query packages to retrieve specific information, such as dependencies, recommendations, files etc. In this tutorial we learn how to perform such queries.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to run rpm in “query” mode
  • How to obtain general information about a package
  • How to read a package changelog
  • How to list the files provided by a package
  • How to list the scripts used by a package
  • How to list a package dependencies and recommendations
  • How to list packages rendered obsolete by an rpm
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How to query packages information with the rpm package manager

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How to work with dnf package groups

How to work with dnf package groups

Dnf is the default high-level package manager in the Red Hat family of distributions, which includes Fedora, Red Hat Enterprise Linux and all its clones. It is the successor of Yum, and indeed using the yum command in recent versions of the distributions mentioned above, is just another way to call dnf. Dnf has a lot of nice features
and plugins which help us install, update and remove software packaged in the “.rpm” format. In this tutorial we explore dnf package groups and learn how to handle them.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • What is a package group
  • How to get information about a package group
  • How to list all available package groups
  • How to install, upgrade and remove a package group
How to work with dnf package groups

How to work with dnf package groups

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Using a custom Red Hat repository - in this case from a Red Hat DVD

Creating a Redhat package repository

If your Red Hat server is not connected to the official RHN repositories, you will need to configure your own private repository which you can later use to install packages. The procedure of creating a Red Hat Linux repository is quite a simple task. In this article, we will show you how to create a local file Red Hat repository as well as a remote HTTP repository.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to use official Red Hat DVD as repository
  • How to create a local file Red Hat repository
  • How to create a remote HTTP Red Hat repository

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How to create a custom rpm repository on Linux

Rpm is the acronym of RPM Package Manager: it is the low-level package manager in use in all the Red Hat family of distributions, such as Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

An rpm package is a package containing software that is meant to be installed using this package management system, and rpm packages are usually distributed via software repositories. In this tutorial we learn how to create a custom rpm repository and how to configure our distribution to use it as a software source.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to create an rpm repository
  • How to use the repository as a software source

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Disabling SELinux on CentOS 8

How to disable SELinux on CentOS 8

SELinux, which stands for Security Enhanced Linux, is an extra layer of security control built into Red Hat Enterprise Linux and its derivative Linux distributions, such as CentOS. SELinux is enabled by default on CentOS 8, and would have to be manually disabled if a user doesn’t wish to use it.

Although SELinux can protect our system through access control for programs and system services, it’s not always necessary to have it enabled. Some users may even find that it interferes with certain programs they try to install. In this guide, we’ll go over the step by step instructions to disable SELinux on CentOS 8, both temporarily or persistently across reboots.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to check the status of SELinux
  • How to put SELinux in permissive mode
  • How to disable SELinux

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How to setup an FTP/SFTP server on AlmaLinux

How to setup FTP/SFTP server and client on AlmaLinux

FTP and SFTP are great protocols for downloading files from a remote or local server, or uploading files onto the server. FTP will suffice for some situations, but for connections over the internet, SFTP is recommended. In other words, FTP is not secure to use over an internet connection, since your credentials and data are transmitted without encryption. The ‘S’ in SFTP stands for ‘Secure’ and tunnels the FTP protocol through SSH, providing the encryption needed to establish a secure connection.

In this guide, we’ll go over the step by step instructions to setup an FTP server through VSFTP software or SFTP server through OpenSSH on AlmaLinux. Then, we’ll see how to connect to the server from a client AlmaLinux system. Setting up FTP/SFTP is a common step after installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to setup an FTP server through VSFTPD
  • How to setup an SFTP server through OpenSSH
  • How to setup FTP and SFTP user accounts
  • How to allow FTP and SFTP through firewalld
  • How to connect to an FTP/SFTP server via command line
  • How to connect to an FTP/SFTP server via GNOME GUI
How to setup an FTP/SFTP server on AlmaLinux

How to setup an FTP/SFTP server on AlmaLinux

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Setting up a Samba share on AlmaLinux

How to setup Samba Server and client on AlmaLinux

File servers often need to accommodate a variety of different client systems. Running Samba allows Windows systems to connect and access files, as well as other Linux systems and MacOS. An alternative solution would be to run an FTP/SFTP server, which can also support the connections from many systems.

In this guide, we’ll go over the instructions to setup a Samba server on AlmaLinux. This is a great way to prepare your file server after installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux. We’ll also see how to connect to the file server from other AlmaLinux client computers.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install Samba on AlmaLinux
  • How to allow Samba through firewalld
  • How to create a Samba user
  • How to configure Samba to share a directory
  • How to allow Samba through SELinux
  • How to connect to Samba server from AlmaLinux client
Setting up a Samba share on AlmaLinux

Setting up a Samba share on AlmaLinux

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Setting up a MySQL database and user on AlmaLinux

How to install MySQL on AlmaLinux

In this guide, we will show you how to install MySQL on AlmaLinux. There are two separate packages for this on AlmaLinux, depending on what you need to do. You can either install the MySQL client package, which is used to connect to MySQL servers, or install the MySQL server software, which can be used to host your own databases. We’ll cover both below.

After installing a MySQL server, we’ll also go over the first steps you’ll need to get started with hosting a database, which includes making a username and password, creating a database, and granting user permissions on that database. AlmaLinux is a good Linux distro for hosting MySQL, whether you’ve freshly installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • Install MySQL Client on AlmaLinux
  • Install MySQL Server on AlmaLinux
  • How to setup a MySQL database
Setting up a MySQL database and user on AlmaLinux

Setting up a MySQL database and user on AlmaLinux

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LEMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux

How to install LEMP stack on AlmaLinux

A LEMP stack is an assortment of software that contains everything you need in order to serve a website, show dynamic content, and store or retrieve data from a database. The software is all within the LEMP acronym, namely the Linux operating system, NGINX web server, MySQL database (or MariaDB alternatively), and PHP programming language.

If you’ve installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux, then you already have the first requirement done. Next, you just need to get your LEMP stack up and running. In this guide, we’ll show the step by step instructions to install a LEMP stack on AlmaLinux.

Note that it’s also possible to install a LAMP stack on AlmaLinux, which is very similar to LEMP except that it contains Apache as the web server instead of NGINX.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install all LEMP prerequisite packages on AlmaLinux
  • How to secure MariaDB database
  • How to start NGINX and MariaDB services
  • How to open HTTP and HTTPS firewall ports
LEMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux

LEMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux

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The chrony NTP server source list on AlmaLinux

How to configure NTP server and client on AlmaLinux

NTP stands for Network Time Protocol and is used for clock synchronization across multiple computers. An NTP server is responsible for keeping a set of computers in sync with each other. On a local network, the server should be able to keep all client systems to within a single millisecond of each other.

Such a configuration would be necessary if, for example, the systems needed to start or stop a task in unison at a precise time. In this article, we’ll show you how to configure an NTP server on AlmaLinux and how to configure a client system to sync its system time with said server. This can be done from a fresh AlmaLinux installation or on a system that has migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install and configure chrony NTP server
  • How to open firewall to incoming NTP requests
  • How to connect to an NTP server from a client machine
The chrony NTP server source list on AlmaLinux

The chrony NTP server source list on AlmaLinux

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Setting the date and time on AlmaLinux

How to set date and time on AlmaLinux

The objective of this guide is to show how to set the system date and time on AlmaLinux. This can be done from both GUI and command line, so we’ll be covering both methods in the following instructions.

Setting your system date, time, and time zone is usually done when initially installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux. If you skipped that step during installation, have switched time zones, or your system clock has drifted out of sync, we’ll help you get it fixed.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to set date and time on AlmaLinux from GNOME GUI
  • How to set date and time on AlmaLinux from command line
Setting the date and time on AlmaLinux

Setting the date and time on AlmaLinux

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