Every command that is typed into a Linux system’s terminal is typically stored in the history buffer for a period of time. This explains why pressing the up arrow in terminal will let you cycle through past commands that have been executed. This buffer of past commands can be customized according to an administrator’s needs, allowing us to vary the number of saved commands, clear the current history, or change other settings.
A keyboard has to be the most essential peripheral of any computer system. In order to make sure it works as intended, the correct keyboard layout must be loaded on the Linux operating system, so that the keys on your keyboard will correspond to the letters or symbols that are being typed on screen. This is why it is so important to personalize the keyboard layout of your system to work with your keyboard model. In addition, we can configure custom keyboard settings which makes life a little easier.
Most of us longtime Linux users have the
ifconfig command seared into our brain, after years of repetitive use. It comes as a shock to some when they type the command and are met with an error message (ifconfig command not found). Indeed, the command has become deprecated, but it’s still possible to install the ifconfig command. The newer alternative is the ip command, which has new functions but also a different syntax that takes some getting used to.
If you receive the
Permission Denied error on your Linux system, it usually means that your user account does not have the proper permissions on the file or directory you are trying to interact with. All files and directories in the Linux file system have user and group permissions attached to them that delegate access to read, write, or execute the file. These permissions work independently of each other, so just because you are able to open a file, does not mean you can edit it.
.tar.gz file format is a tar archive that has been compressed with gunzip compression. These archives are designed to be opened on Linux systems and can contain any type of files within them. Sometimes, software comes packaged in a
.tar.gz file, and users can extract its contents in order to install what is inside.
If you are just starting to learn about file permissions on a Linux system, the chmod and chown commands will be your starting point for granting or revoking file permissions for user accounts. chmod and chown are completely different commands, yet they go hand in hand when it comes to modifying file permissions on the Linux file system. The basic summary is that
chown can change the owner of a file, and
chmod can change the permissions of the file, but this explanation is only scratching the surface.
The stat Linux command is one of the best ways to view the full details of any file that is stored on a Linux system. It is installed by default on all distributions, so there is nothing extra to install, and is basically a one stop shop for viewing file permissions, timestamp info like access times and modification times, and various other metadata for any file on your system. It also comes with a few handy options, allowing us to tailor the output for specific needs, and view information about all file types, including symbolic links, pseudo files, and others.
File permissions on a Linux system can be represented in either symbolic mode or octal mode. Using octal mode to represent file permissions is a little more succinct, since we can usually list all relevant file permissions with just three numbers. These numbers represent the owner, group, and other user permissions for any file or directory on Linux. In this tutorial, you will see how to get a listing of file permissions in octal mode representation on the Linux command line.
When working with various Linux commands, you may be wondering what version of the command you are using. Of course, the version relates to the binary executable file itself, and traditionally is maintained by the system package manager, which is responsible for checking on updated versions and installing them at the user’s discretion. Commands in Linux typically undergo slow, subtle changes. Some commands have not changed much at all since the 70s, when they were introduced on Unix. Others have new versions developed regularly, and you need to check your version to know which features it has. In this tutorial, you will learn how to check the version of a command on a Linux system.
PDF documents are commonly used to hold lengthy amounts of text, especially for formal matters like contracts or terms and conditions. These PDF documents can prove unwieldy in certain scenarios, since a PDF reader application is required to open them, and a PDF editor must be used for changing the contents.
Linux commonly uses base64 to encode and decode data. This method of encoding provides a reliable way for data to be transmitted and stored. The encoding process will convert binary data to ASCII characters, making it usable by a variety of services (such as OpenSSL) that require readable ASCII character transmission as opposed to binary. Afterwards, the data can be decoded back to binary data. In this tutorial, you will see how to use the
base64 command to decode and encode data on a Linux system.
The cp command is used to copy files and directories on a Linux system. If a user tries to copy a file over to a location that already contains the same file name, the default behavior of
cp is to overwrite the destination file with the source file. However, on some Linux systems, this behavior can be configured differently, and the user might see a prompt to confirm overwriting in their terminal. When copying many files, this prompt can get repetitive and annoying to deal with. In this tutorial, you will learn how to say YES to ALL with the
cp command when trying to copy files via the Linux command line.