Programming & Scripting

Python Inheritance

Introduction Inheritance is yet another key concept in Object Oriented Programming, and it plays a vital role in building classes. It allows a class to be based off on an existing one. When you first started writing Python classes, you were told to just put "Object" in the parenthesis of the class definition and not think too much about it. Well, now's the time to start thinking about it. "Object" is actually the base class that all Python classes inherit from. It defines a basic set of...
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How to perform a faster data compression with pbzip2

Introduction What if you would be able to perform a data compression four times faster, with the same compression ratio as you normally do. Pbzip2 command line utility can easily accomplish this as it gives you an option to select number CPU and amount of RAM to be used during the compression process. Regular tar and bzip2 compression We all know the regular command to perform tar and bzip2 directory compression. The below command will tar and compress our sandbox directory FOOBAR . We are...
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Python Encapsulation

Introduction Encapsulation is one of the fundamental aspects of Object Oriented Programming. It allows programmers better control of how data flows in their programs, and it protects that data. Encapsulation also makes objects into more self-sufficient and independently functioning pieces. The concept of encapsulation builds on what you did in the last two guides with classes and constructors. Constructors usually are usually used in close conjunction with encapsulation and actually aid in...
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Python Constructors

Introduction By now, you should be familiar with the way basic classes work in Python . If classes were just what you've seen, they'd be fairly rigid and not all that useful. Thankfully, classes are much more than just that. They are designed to be much more adaptable and can take in information to shape the way they look initially. Not every car starts off exactly the same, and neither should classes. After all, how awful would it be if every car was an orange 71' Ford Pinto? That's not a...
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Python Classes

Introduction Classes are the cornerstone of Object Oriented Programming. They are the blueprints used to create objects. And, as the name suggests, all of Object Oriented Programming centers around the use of objects to build programs. You don't write objects, not really. They are created, or instantiated, in a program using a class as their basis. So, you design objects by writing classes. That means that the most important part of understanding Object Oriented Programming is understanding...
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Learn Python Fundamentals

Python is a big deal. It is one of the fastest growing and most in-demand programming languages in the world today. Python is so flexible and versatile that it is used for nearly every job that a programming language can do. Python powers desktop applications, is used for Linux system scripting and automation, acts as a glue language between Linux applications, is a supplemental scripting language in large programs like GIMP, Blender, and Autodesk Maya, performs crucial scientific and...
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Python Functions

Introduction Code would quickly become an ugly and unruly mess if there wasn't a way to easily repeat and reuse it. You've already seen some of that with loops. They're great for repeating the same task multiple times right away. What if you wanted to reuse a block of code whenever you wanted? Well, that's where functions come in. Here's another trip back to math class. If you remember, functions took in a number, did something to it, then outputted the new value. They were often represented...
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Python Advanced Dictionaries

Introduction You've already gotten acquainted with dictionaries, but just like the other data structures Python supports, there are methods and more powerful ways to use them. There aren't as many methods for working with dictionaries as there are for lists, but that's because dictionaries just don't need them. Plus, many of the ones that do exist, work to break down dictionaries into lists and tuples to make them easier to manage. So, those list methods can be used in conjunction with the...
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Python Dictionaries

Introduction Somebody hit lists with gamma rays. Okay, so Dictionaries aren't the Incredible Hulk, but they are supercharged in what they can do. In other languages, dictionaries are referred to as hashes, associative arrays, and associative lists. It's probably best to think of them as associative lists because that's exactly what they are. Dictionaries are lists that associate two values with one another. To think of it in terms of an actual dictionary, they associate a word, or key with a...
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Python For Loops

Introduction There is yet another type of loop. That loop is designed for iterating sets of data. That's right, lists. Unlike while loops, these for loops have a defined length based on the data set that they are iterating over. Generally, for loops are used to access and modify each element in a list. To do this, they temporarily represent each element as a new variable used only within the loop. for loops have a slightly different structure than while loops do. They begin with the word for ,...
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Python While Loops

Introduction Many times in programming, you will need to repeat the same task many times. In fact, looping through and repeating an operation is one of the cornerstones of programming. After all, one of the things that computers are way better than humans at is performing repetitive tasks without getting tired or making mistakes. One of the simplest ways to make a program repeat the same task is to use a while loop. A while loop repeats the same block of code while a condition is true. When...
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Python If Statements

Introduction How can a program make a decision? Can a program choose between two or more options. Actually, it can. This isn't some kind of advanced AI concept, it's just a matter of evaluating whether or not certain conditions have been met and choosing a response. The way that a program can evaluate a condition comes down to true and false. If something is true, do this. If it isn't true do, that. The if statement is the structure for a program to pose these questions and evaluate whether or...
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Python Boolean Operators

Introduction If you've been following along, you're probably tired of hearing about lists right about now. Well, this guide has nothing to do with lists! Remember back when you first leaned about variables; how there was one that just held True or False called a Boolean? There hasn't been a guide on them because Booleans are actually that simple. However, there are symbols called Boolean Operators that are used to evaluate whether a statement is true or false. They compare statements and...
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Python Tuples

Introduction Tuples are immutable data sets made up of data of different types. While tuples are very similar to lists, they are different in those key ways. Tuples cannot be changed once they are created. The data they hold can be passed to a different tuple, but the original tuple cannot be changed. This means that tuples don't have methods for manipulating them like lists do because they cannot be manipulated. Like lists, tuples can also contain data of different types. Tuples can contain...
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Python Multidimensional Lists

Introduction Now it's time to take lists to a new dimension. No, you don't need to learn how to code in "The Upside Down," but there are additional degrees of complexity to lists. Lists are used to hold data, but they are also used to categorize it. Values inside a list can be further broken down into other sets. That's essentially what a multidimensional list is. Two Dimensional Lists What is a list that holds lists? That's all a two dimensional list is. The list below consists of three...
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Python List Methods

Introduction Using methods with lists gives you the power to manipulate the data stored in the lists quickly and effectively. Many of these methods are concerned with finding, adding, and removing pieces of data stored within the list they are being called on. Others are more concerned with the structure of the list itself. In any case, they will make your experience using lists a lot less frustrating by saving you time and effort writing and rewriting the same code. Finding the Length Yes,...
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Python Lists

Introduction Lists are a big deal. It really can't be overemphasized what a big deal they are. Lists are not only used for iterating through data, but they are also a popular data storage and categorization method used for handling data as a program is running. For anyone who's programmed in another language, lists are often known as arrays. Lists may be either very simple or very complex, but they all follow the same rules. Lists may contain different types of data, but be careful when...
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Python Comments

Introduction This guide isn't about programming. In fact, there is no new code involved at all. However, it does have everything to do with making sure that the code that you write is understandable to both yourself and anyone else that might look at it down the line. If you've looked at any open source projects, you've probably noticed notes placed in by the programmers. Those notes are just plain text. The programming language doesn't compile or interpret them in any way. It just ignores...
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Advanced Python Strings

Introduction In the previous guide, you learned the basics of handling strings in Python. In this guide, you will explore some of the more complex things that strings are capable of. There are tools built into Python, called string methods, that help you to handle strings and do some very powerful things. Through the use of string methods, you can masterfully manipulate text and use it to its fullest potential without writing a ton of code. Navigating a String Strings aren't words. They aren't...
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Python String Basics

Introduction Strings are called what they are because they are strings of characters. It doesn't matter if those characters are letters, numbers, symbols or spaces. They are all taken literally and not processed within a string. That's why strings are sometimes referred to as string literals. String Basics If you've been following along with the previous guides, you've already experimented with some strings. You've typed in some, and you've printed them back out. What about getting user input...
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