RPM is the recursive acronym for RPM Package Manager: it is the default low level package manager in some of the most famous and most used Linux distributions, such as Fedora, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS, OpenSUSE and their derivatives. The software, as you can expect, is free and open source; when invoked with the -q option it can be used to query packages to retrieve specific information, such as dependencies, recommendations, files etc. In this tutorial we learn how to perform such queries.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to run rpm in “query” mode
  • How to obtain general information about a package
  • How to read a package changelog
  • How to list the files provided by a package
  • How to list the scripts used by a package
  • How to list a package dependencies and recommendations
  • How to list packages rendered obsolete by an rpm
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How to query packages information with the rpm package manager

Most of the time as a Linux system administrator you are managing your servers over the network. It is very rare that you will need to have a physical access to any of your managed servers. In most cases all you need is to SSH remotely to do your administration tasks. In this article we will configure a GUI alternative to a remote access to your RHEL server, which is VNC. VNC allows you to open a remote GUI session to your server and thus providing you with a full graphical interface accessible from any remote location.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install required VNC packages
  • How to setup and start the VNC server on RHEL
  • How to connect to a graphical session remotely
  • How to run graphical programs in the xterm session

Dnf is the default high-level package manager in the Red Hat family of distributions, which includes Fedora, Red Hat Enterprise Linux and all its clones. It is the successor of Yum, and indeed using the yum command in recent versions of the distributions mentioned above, is just another way to call dnf. Dnf has a lot of nice features and plugins which help us install, update and remove software packaged in the “.rpm” format. In this tutorial we explore dnf package groups and learn how to handle them.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • What is a package group
  • How to get information about a package group
  • How to list all available package groups
  • How to install, upgrade and remove a package group
How to work with dnf package groups
How to work with dnf package groups

If your Red Hat server is not connected to the official RHN repositories, you will need to configure your own private repository which you can later use to install packages. The procedure of creating a Red Hat Linux repository is quite a simple task. In this article, we will show you how to create a local file Red Hat repository as well as a remote HTTP repository.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to use official Red Hat DVD as repository
  • How to create a local file Red Hat repository
  • How to create a remote HTTP Red Hat repository

Rpm is the acronym of RPM Package Manager: it is the low-level package manager in use in all the Red Hat family of distributions, such as Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

An rpm package is a package containing software that is meant to be installed using this package management system, and rpm packages are usually distributed via software repositories. In this tutorial we learn how to create a custom rpm repository and how to configure our distribution to use it as a software source.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to create an rpm repository
  • How to use the repository as a software source

SELinux, which stands for Security Enhanced Linux, is an extra layer of security control built into Red Hat Enterprise Linux and its derivative Linux distributions, such as CentOS. SELinux is enabled by default on CentOS 8, and would have to be manually disabled if a user doesn't wish to use it.

Although SELinux can protect our system through access control for programs and system services, it's not always necessary to have it enabled. Some users may even find that it interferes with certain programs they try to install. In this guide, we'll go over the step by step instructions to disable SELinux on CentOS 8, both temporarily or persistently across reboots.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to check the status of SELinux
  • How to put SELinux in permissive mode
  • How to disable SELinux

File servers often need to accommodate a variety of different client systems. Running Samba allows Windows systems to connect and access files, as well as other Linux systems and MacOS. An alternative solution would be to run an FTP/SFTP server, which can also support the connections from many systems.

In this guide, we'll go over the instructions to setup a Samba server on AlmaLinux. This is a great way to prepare your file server after installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux. We'll also see how to connect to the file server from other AlmaLinux client computers.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install Samba on AlmaLinux
  • How to allow Samba through firewalld
  • How to create a Samba user
  • How to configure Samba to share a directory
  • How to allow Samba through SELinux
  • How to connect to Samba server from AlmaLinux client
Setting up a Samba share on AlmaLinux
Setting up a Samba share on AlmaLinux

FTP and SFTP are great protocols for downloading files from a remote or local server, or uploading files onto the server. FTP will suffice for some situations, but for connections over the internet, SFTP is recommended. In other words, FTP is not secure to use over an internet connection, since your credentials and data are transmitted without encryption. The 'S' in SFTP stands for 'Secure' and tunnels the FTP protocol through SSH, providing the encryption needed to establish a secure connection.

In this guide, we'll go over the step by step instructions to setup an FTP server through VSFTP software or SFTP server through OpenSSH on AlmaLinux. Then, we'll see how to connect to the server from a client AlmaLinux system. Setting up FTP/SFTP is a common step after installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to setup an FTP server through VSFTPD
  • How to setup an SFTP server through OpenSSH
  • How to setup FTP and SFTP user accounts
  • How to allow FTP and SFTP through firewalld
  • How to connect to an FTP/SFTP server via command line
  • How to connect to an FTP/SFTP server via GNOME GUI
How to setup an FTP/SFTP server on AlmaLinux
How to setup an FTP/SFTP server on AlmaLinux

A LEMP stack is an assortment of software that contains everything you need in order to serve a website, show dynamic content, and store or retrieve data from a database. The software is all within the LEMP acronym, namely the Linux operating system, NGINX web server, MySQL database (or MariaDB alternatively), and PHP programming language.

If you've installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux, then you already have the first requirement done. Next, you just need to get your LEMP stack up and running. In this guide, we'll show the step by step instructions to install a LEMP stack on AlmaLinux.

Note that it's also possible to install a LAMP stack on AlmaLinux, which is very similar to LEMP except that it contains Apache as the web server instead of NGINX.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install all LEMP prerequisite packages on AlmaLinux
  • How to secure MariaDB database
  • How to start NGINX and MariaDB services
  • How to open HTTP and HTTPS firewall ports
LEMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux
LEMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux

In this guide, we will show you how to install MySQL on AlmaLinux. There are two separate packages for this on AlmaLinux, depending on what you need to do. You can either install the MySQL client package, which is used to connect to MySQL servers, or install the MySQL server software, which can be used to host your own databases. We'll cover both below.

After installing a MySQL server, we'll also go over the first steps you'll need to get started with hosting a database, which includes making a username and password, creating a database, and granting user permissions on that database. AlmaLinux is a good Linux distro for hosting MySQL, whether you've freshly installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • Install MySQL Client on AlmaLinux
  • Install MySQL Server on AlmaLinux
  • How to setup a MySQL database
Setting up a MySQL database and user on AlmaLinux
Setting up a MySQL database and user on AlmaLinux

NTP stands for Network Time Protocol and is used for clock synchronization across multiple computers. An NTP server is responsible for keeping a set of computers in sync with each other. On a local network, the server should be able to keep all client systems to within a single millisecond of each other.

Such a configuration would be necessary if, for example, the systems needed to start or stop a task in unison at a precise time. In this article, we'll show you how to configure an NTP server on AlmaLinux and how to configure a client system to sync its system time with said server. This can be done from a fresh AlmaLinux installation or on a system that has migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install and configure chrony NTP server
  • How to open firewall to incoming NTP requests
  • How to connect to an NTP server from a client machine
The chrony NTP server source list on AlmaLinux
The chrony NTP server source list on AlmaLinux

The objective of this guide is to show how to set the system date and time on AlmaLinux. This can be done from both GUI and command line, so we'll be covering both methods in the following instructions.

Setting your system date, time, and time zone is usually done when initially installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux. If you skipped that step during installation, have switched time zones, or your system clock has drifted out of sync, we'll help you get it fixed.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to set date and time on AlmaLinux from GNOME GUI
  • How to set date and time on AlmaLinux from command line
Setting the date and time on AlmaLinux
Setting the date and time on AlmaLinux

Apache is one of the most popular and longstanding HTTP servers. It's an open-source and cross-platform web server software developed and maintained by Apache Software Foundation. It's easy to set up and learn to use, which has led to its widespread adoption for small and large scale websites.

In this guide, we'll go over the step by step instructions to install Apache on AlmaLinux. Feel free to follow along with us, whether you have a fresh AlmaLinux installation or have migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install Apache web server on AlmaLinux
  • How to control Apache web server with systemctl commands
  • How to open firewall for HTTP (port 80) and HTTPS (port 443)
  • How to host a website with Apache
  • How to install SSL certificate with Let's Encrypt
Installing Apache on AlmaLinux
Installing Apache on AlmaLinux

Git is a versioning control system, mainly used by programmers to issue changes to applications and keep track of the revisions. However, it's also commonly used by everyday users, since they're able to browse and download the source code and binaries of millions of applications from websites like GitHub and GitLab.

On Linux, familiarity with Git and access to the command line utility is borderline essential. That is, if you're the type of user who likes to install programs to unlock additional features and the like.

In this guide, we'll show you the step by step instructions to install Git on AlmaLinux. Once it's installed, you can read our other guide on how to get started using Git. This is a great process to do right after installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install Git on AlmaLinux
Installing Git on AlmaLinux
Installing Git on AlmaLinux

A LAMP stack is an assortment of software that contains everything you need in order to serve a website, show dynamic content, and store or retrieve data from a database. The software is all within the LAMP acronym, namely the Linux operating system, Apache web server, MySQL database (or MariaDB alternatively), and PHP programming language.

If you've installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux, then you already have the first requirement done. Next, you just need to get your LAMP stack up and running. In this guide, we'll show the step by step instructions to install a LAMP stack on AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install all LAMP prerequisite packages on AlmaLinux
  • How to secure MariaDB database
  • How to start httpd and MariaDB services
  • How to open HTTP and HTTPS firewall ports
LAMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux
LAMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux

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