Rpm is the acronym of RPM Package Manager: it is the low-level package manager in use in all the Red Hat family of distributions, such as Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
An rpm package is a package containing software that is meant to be installed using this package management system, and rpm packages are usually distributed via software repositories. In this tutorial we learn how to create a custom rpm repository and how to configure our distribution to use it as a software source.
SELinux, which stands for Security Enhanced Linux, is an extra layer of security control built into Red Hat Enterprise Linux and its derivative Linux distributions, such as CentOS. SELinux is enabled by default on CentOS 8, and would have to be manually disabled if a user doesn't wish to use it.
Although SELinux can protect our system through access control for programs and system services, it's not always necessary to have it enabled. Some users may even find that it interferes with certain programs they try to install. In this guide, we'll go over the step by step instructions to disable SELinux on CentOS 8, both temporarily or persistently across reboots.
File servers often need to accommodate a variety of different client systems. Running Samba allows Windows systems to connect and access files, as well as other Linux systems and MacOS. An alternative solution would be to run an FTP/SFTP server, which can also support the connections from many systems.
FTP and SFTP are great protocols for downloading files from a remote or local server, or uploading files onto the server. FTP will suffice for some situations, but for connections over the internet, SFTP is recommended. In other words, FTP is not secure to use over an internet connection, since your credentials and data are transmitted without encryption. The 'S' in SFTP stands for 'Secure' and tunnels the FTP protocol through SSH, providing the encryption needed to establish a secure connection.
A LEMP stack is an assortment of software that contains everything you need in order to serve a website, show dynamic content, and store or retrieve data from a database. The software is all within the LEMP acronym, namely the Linux operating system, NGINX web server, MySQL database (or MariaDB alternatively), and PHP programming language.
If you've installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux, then you already have the first requirement done. Next, you just need to get your LEMP stack up and running. In this guide, we'll show the step by step instructions to install a LEMP stack on AlmaLinux.
In this guide, we will show you how to install MySQL on AlmaLinux. There are two separate packages for this on AlmaLinux, depending on what you need to do. You can either install the MySQL client package, which is used to connect to MySQL servers, or install the MySQL server software, which can be used to host your own databases. We'll cover both below.
After installing a MySQL server, we'll also go over the first steps you'll need to get started with hosting a database, which includes making a username and password, creating a database, and granting user permissions on that database. AlmaLinux is a good Linux distro for hosting MySQL, whether you've freshly installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.
NTP stands for Network Time Protocol and is used for clock synchronization across multiple computers. An NTP server is responsible for keeping a set of computers in sync with each other. On a local network, the server should be able to keep all client systems to within a single millisecond of each other.
Such a configuration would be necessary if, for example, the systems needed to start or stop a task in unison at a precise time. In this article, we'll show you how to configure an NTP server on AlmaLinux and how to configure a client system to sync its system time with said server. This can be done from a fresh AlmaLinux installation or on a system that has migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.
In this tutorial you will learn:
How to install and configure chrony NTP server
How to open firewall to incoming NTP requests
How to connect to an NTP server from a client machine
The objective of this guide is to show how to set the system date and time on AlmaLinux. This can be done from both GUI and command line, so we'll be covering both methods in the following instructions.
Apache is one of the most popular and longstanding HTTP servers. It's an open-source and cross-platform web server software developed and maintained by Apache Software Foundation. It's easy to set up and learn to use, which has led to its widespread adoption for small and large scale websites.
Git is a versioning control system, mainly used by programmers to issue changes to applications and keep track of the revisions. However, it's also commonly used by everyday users, since they're able to browse and download the source code and binaries of millions of applications from websites like GitHub and GitLab.
On Linux, familiarity with Git and access to the command line utility is borderline essential. That is, if you're the type of user who likes to install programs to unlock additional features and the like.
A LAMP stack is an assortment of software that contains everything you need in order to serve a website, show dynamic content, and store or retrieve data from a database. The software is all within the LAMP acronym, namely the Linux operating system, Apache web server, MySQL database (or MariaDB alternatively), and PHP programming language.
If you've installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux, then you already have the first requirement done. Next, you just need to get your LAMP stack up and running. In this guide, we'll show the step by step instructions to install a LAMP stack on AlmaLinux.
In this tutorial you will learn:
How to install all LAMP prerequisite packages on AlmaLinux
In this guide, we'll go over the step by step instructions to install and configure SSH on AlmaLinux. This will help you whether you just want to connect to remote systems via SSH or you want your own system to accept incoming connections as well.
If you or one of the other users of an AlmaLinux system forgets the password to their account, there's a simple way to reset the password from either command line or GUI. The same steps can also apply if it's simply time to change your password or you want to force another user's password to expire and change.
There are several scenarios that you might encounter that cause you to reset your password.
You need to change a normal user or the root account's password
You want to force a user to change their password
You have forgotten the root account password
In this guide, we'll be covering the step by step instructions for problems 1 and 2 mentioned above. If you need help resetting your system's root password, see our other guide for recovering a root password on RHEL.
In this tutorial you will learn:
How to change user or root password via command line
How to change user password via GNOME GUI
How to force a user's password to expire and be reset
By default, when a Linux system tries to communicate with a network address, the computer will send the request to the default gateway. The default gateway is usually a router, which can take the system's request and forward it to the next hop, wherever that may be.
This behavior can be overridden by adding one or more static routes to the Linux machine. Such a configuration can be desirable if the network has multiple networks and routers, and a user needs to instruct the computer which way to route certain traffic.
Red Hat based distributions, such as AlmaLinux, can use the nmclicommand line utility to configure static routes, along with the ip route command and manual configuration of ifcfg files. Alternatively, you can use your installed desktop environment to apply the configuration. In this guide, we'll go over the step by step instructions to add static routes on AlmaLinux through both command line and GUI methods. These instructions are applicable whether you've freshly installed AlmaLinux or have migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.
By default, the firewall is turned on, meaning that a very limited number of services are able to receive incoming traffic. This is a nice security feature, but it means that the user must be knowledgeable enough to configure the firewall whenever they install a new service on the system, like HTTPD or SSH for example. Otherwise, connections from the internet can't reach these services.