File servers often need to accommodate a variety of different client systems. Running Samba allows Windows systems to connect and access files, as well as other Linux systems and MacOS. An alternative solution would be to run an FTP/SFTP server, which can also support the connections from many systems.

In this guide, we'll go over the instructions to setup a Samba server on AlmaLinux. This is a great way to prepare your file server after installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux. We'll also see how to connect to the file server from other AlmaLinux client computers.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install Samba on AlmaLinux
  • How to allow Samba through firewalld
  • How to create a Samba user
  • How to configure Samba to share a directory
  • How to allow Samba through SELinux
  • How to connect to Samba server from AlmaLinux client
Setting up a Samba share on AlmaLinux
Setting up a Samba share on AlmaLinux

FTP and SFTP are great protocols for downloading files from a remote or local server, or uploading files onto the server. FTP will suffice for some situations, but for connections over the internet, SFTP is recommended. In other words, FTP is not secure to use over an internet connection, since your credentials and data are transmitted without encryption. The 'S' in SFTP stands for 'Secure' and tunnels the FTP protocol through SSH, providing the encryption needed to establish a secure connection.

In this guide, we'll go over the step by step instructions to setup an FTP server through VSFTP software or SFTP server through OpenSSH on AlmaLinux. Then, we'll see how to connect to the server from a client AlmaLinux system. Setting up FTP/SFTP is a common step after installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to setup an FTP server through VSFTPD
  • How to setup an SFTP server through OpenSSH
  • How to setup FTP and SFTP user accounts
  • How to allow FTP and SFTP through firewalld
  • How to connect to an FTP/SFTP server via command line
  • How to connect to an FTP/SFTP server via GNOME GUI
How to setup an FTP/SFTP server on AlmaLinux
How to setup an FTP/SFTP server on AlmaLinux

A LEMP stack is an assortment of software that contains everything you need in order to serve a website, show dynamic content, and store or retrieve data from a database. The software is all within the LEMP acronym, namely the Linux operating system, NGINX web server, MySQL database (or MariaDB alternatively), and PHP programming language.

If you've installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux, then you already have the first requirement done. Next, you just need to get your LEMP stack up and running. In this guide, we'll show the step by step instructions to install a LEMP stack on AlmaLinux.

Note that it's also possible to install a LAMP stack on AlmaLinux, which is very similar to LEMP except that it contains Apache as the web server instead of NGINX.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install all LEMP prerequisite packages on AlmaLinux
  • How to secure MariaDB database
  • How to start NGINX and MariaDB services
  • How to open HTTP and HTTPS firewall ports
LEMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux
LEMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux

In this guide, we will show you how to install MySQL on AlmaLinux. There are two separate packages for this on AlmaLinux, depending on what you need to do. You can either install the MySQL client package, which is used to connect to MySQL servers, or install the MySQL server software, which can be used to host your own databases. We'll cover both below.

After installing a MySQL server, we'll also go over the first steps you'll need to get started with hosting a database, which includes making a username and password, creating a database, and granting user permissions on that database. AlmaLinux is a good Linux distro for hosting MySQL, whether you've freshly installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • Install MySQL Client on AlmaLinux
  • Install MySQL Server on AlmaLinux
  • How to setup a MySQL database
Setting up a MySQL database and user on AlmaLinux
Setting up a MySQL database and user on AlmaLinux

NTP stands for Network Time Protocol and is used for clock synchronization across multiple computers. An NTP server is responsible for keeping a set of computers in sync with each other. On a local network, the server should be able to keep all client systems to within a single millisecond of each other.

Such a configuration would be necessary if, for example, the systems needed to start or stop a task in unison at a precise time. In this article, we'll show you how to configure an NTP server on AlmaLinux and how to configure a client system to sync its system time with said server. This can be done from a fresh AlmaLinux installation or on a system that has migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install and configure chrony NTP server
  • How to open firewall to incoming NTP requests
  • How to connect to an NTP server from a client machine
The chrony NTP server source list on AlmaLinux
The chrony NTP server source list on AlmaLinux

The objective of this guide is to show how to set the system date and time on AlmaLinux. This can be done from both GUI and command line, so we'll be covering both methods in the following instructions.

Setting your system date, time, and time zone is usually done when initially installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux. If you skipped that step during installation, have switched time zones, or your system clock has drifted out of sync, we'll help you get it fixed.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to set date and time on AlmaLinux from GNOME GUI
  • How to set date and time on AlmaLinux from command line
Setting the date and time on AlmaLinux
Setting the date and time on AlmaLinux

Apache is one of the most popular and longstanding HTTP servers. It's an open-source and cross-platform web server software developed and maintained by Apache Software Foundation. It's easy to set up and learn to use, which has led to its widespread adoption for small and large scale websites.

In this guide, we'll go over the step by step instructions to install Apache on AlmaLinux. Feel free to follow along with us, whether you have a fresh AlmaLinux installation or have migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install Apache web server on AlmaLinux
  • How to control Apache web server with systemctl commands
  • How to open firewall for HTTP (port 80) and HTTPS (port 443)
  • How to host a website with Apache
  • How to install SSL certificate with Let's Encrypt
Installing Apache on AlmaLinux
Installing Apache on AlmaLinux

Git is a versioning control system, mainly used by programmers to issue changes to applications and keep track of the revisions. However, it's also commonly used by everyday users, since they're able to browse and download the source code and binaries of millions of applications from websites like GitHub and GitLab.

On Linux, familiarity with Git and access to the command line utility is borderline essential. That is, if you're the type of user who likes to install programs to unlock additional features and the like.

In this guide, we'll show you the step by step instructions to install Git on AlmaLinux. Once it's installed, you can read our other guide on how to get started using Git. This is a great process to do right after installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install Git on AlmaLinux
Installing Git on AlmaLinux
Installing Git on AlmaLinux

A LAMP stack is an assortment of software that contains everything you need in order to serve a website, show dynamic content, and store or retrieve data from a database. The software is all within the LAMP acronym, namely the Linux operating system, Apache web server, MySQL database (or MariaDB alternatively), and PHP programming language.

If you've installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux, then you already have the first requirement done. Next, you just need to get your LAMP stack up and running. In this guide, we'll show the step by step instructions to install a LAMP stack on AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install all LAMP prerequisite packages on AlmaLinux
  • How to secure MariaDB database
  • How to start httpd and MariaDB services
  • How to open HTTP and HTTPS firewall ports
LAMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux
LAMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux

SSH is the primary method of remote access and administration on Linux systems. SSH is a client-server service providing secure, encrypted connections over a network connection. After installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux, it will probably be one of the first things you want to configure.

In this guide, we'll go over the step by step instructions to install and configure SSH on AlmaLinux. This will help you whether you just want to connect to remote systems via SSH or you want your own system to accept incoming connections as well.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install SSH
  • How to start and stop the SSH service
  • How to allow SSH through system firewall
SSH server enabled and running on AlmaLinux
SSH server enabled and running on AlmaLinux

After installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux, most users will eventually run into the need to do some user account management, such as adding a new user account or resetting a password.

If you or one of the other users of an AlmaLinux system forgets the password to their account, there's a simple way to reset the password from either command line or GUI. The same steps can also apply if it's simply time to change your password or you want to force another user's password to expire and change.

There are several scenarios that you might encounter that cause you to reset your password.

  1. You need to change a normal user or the root account's password
  2. You want to force a user to change their password
  3. You have forgotten the root account password

In this guide, we'll be covering the step by step instructions for problems 1 and 2 mentioned above. If you need help resetting your system's root password, see our other guide for recovering a root password on RHEL.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to change user or root password via command line
  • How to change user password via GNOME GUI
  • How to force a user's password to expire and be reset
Resetting a user password on AlmaLinux
Resetting a user password on AlmaLinux

By default, when a Linux system tries to communicate with a network address, the computer will send the request to the default gateway. The default gateway is usually a router, which can take the system's request and forward it to the next hop, wherever that may be.

This behavior can be overridden by adding one or more static routes to the Linux machine. Such a configuration can be desirable if the network has multiple networks and routers, and a user needs to instruct the computer which way to route certain traffic.

Red Hat based distributions, such as AlmaLinux, can use the nmcli command line utility to configure static routes, along with the ip route command and manual configuration of ifcfg files. Alternatively, you can use your installed desktop environment to apply the configuration. In this guide, we'll go over the step by step instructions to add static routes on AlmaLinux through both command line and GUI methods. These instructions are applicable whether you've freshly installed AlmaLinux or have migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to add a route via nmcli command
  • How to add a route via ip route command
  • How to add a route via ifcfg files
  • How to add a route via GNOME GUI
Adding a new static route in AlmaLinux
Adding a new static route in AlmaLinux

firewalld is the default firewall program that comes pre-installed on Red Hat Enterprise Linux and its derivative Linux distributions, such as AlmaLinux.

By default, the firewall is turned on, meaning that a very limited number of services are able to receive incoming traffic. This is a nice security feature, but it means that the user must be knowledgeable enough to configure the firewall whenever they install a new service on the system, like HTTPD or SSH for example. Otherwise, connections from the internet can't reach these services.

Rather than disabling the firewall on AlmaLinux entirely, we can allow certain ports through the firewall, which lets incoming connections reach our services. In this guide, we'll see how to allow a port through the firewall on AlmaLinux. Feel free to follow along whether you've freshly installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to allow a port or service through the firewall on AlmaLinux
  • How to reload the firewall for changes to take effect
  • How to check what ports and services are open in the firewall
  • How to close a port after having it configured as open
  • Command examples for allowing the most common ports through firewall
Allowing a port through the firewall on AlmaLinux
Allowing a port through the firewall on AlmaLinux

SELinux, which stands for Security Enhanced Linux, is an extra layer of security control built into Red Hat Enterprise Linux and its derivative Linux distributions, such as AlmaLinux. SELinux is enabled by default on the system, and would have to be manually disabled if a user doesn't wish to use it.

Although SELinux can protect our system through access control for programs and system services, it's not always necessary to have it enabled. Some users may even find that it interferes with certain programs they try to install. In this guide, we'll go over the step by step instructions to disable SELinux on AlmaLinux, whether you've freshly installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to check the status of SELinux
  • How to put SELinux in permissive mode
  • How to disable SELinux
Disabling SELinux on AlmaLinux
Disabling SELinux on AlmaLinux

firewalld is the firewall manager that comes pre-installed on AlmaLinux, whether you've freshly installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux. By default, the firewall is turned on, meaning that a very limited number of services are able to receive incoming traffic.

This is a nice security feature, but it means that the user must be knowledgeable enough to configure the firewall whenever they install a new service on the system, like HTTPD or SSH for example. Otherwise, connections from the internet can't reach these services.

In this guide, we'll see how to disable or enable the firewall in AlmaLinux, along with checking the status of the firewall. These are good troubleshooting options when trying to determine if a firewall rule is blocking traffic to or from a particular service.

DID YOU KNOW?
firewalld is simply a front end for the system's nftables (formerly iptables) firewall. This makes the firewall easier to interact with, but essentially firewalld just translates all our commands into corresponding nft commands.
In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to check the firewall status on AlmaLinux
  • How to stop firewall on AlmaLinux
  • How to start firewall on AlmaLinux
  • How to permanently disable firewall on AlmaLinux
  • How to enable firewall to start after reboot
How to disable or enable the firewall on AlmaLinux
How to disable or enable the firewall on AlmaLinux

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