NTFS stands for New Technology File System and is developed by Microsoft for use on their Windows operating systems. NTFS is not normally used on Linux systems, but has been the default file system on Windows for many years. Linux users are probably used to seeing drives with the ext4 file system, which is ordinarily the default and certainly the most widespread in the Linux realm.
The chmod command is used to assign permissions on files and directories within a Linux system. Chmod can accept many varying syntaxes, such as symbolic mode and absolute mode, therefore it can be a little confusing when learning all the different ways that chmod can be used. When it comes to granting a user execute permissions, the
+x options are often used because of their simple and straightforward syntax. But do you know the difference between these two options?
The Linux operating system allows users to assign granular permissions to all files and directories. Ordinarily, it is sufficient to hand out read, write, and/or execute permissions to individual user accounts or groups of users by utilizing the chmod command. But it is also possible to set granular permissions on a per user basis by configuring access control lists.
Sometimes it is necessary to grant full user rights on an assortment of files in your Linux system. You may have dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of files on which a user needs read, write, and execute permissions in order to fully access and utilize them. In such scenarios, it can be useful to grant full user rights on an entire directory, which gives blanket permissions on all of the directory’s file contents and subdirectories.
Groups are an essential part of how discretionary access control (DAC) is implemented on Linux and, in general, on any Unix-based operating system. The creation, modification, and removal of groups are relatively straightforward operations which can be carried out using some utilities installed by default.
On Linux, traditionally, a process could either run as root, and so have limitless access to the system, or as a non-root user, subject to a set of restrictions. Since version 2.2 of the kernel, capabilities were introduced as a way to grant permissions in a more granular way.
Fail2ban is a free and open source software we can use to mitigate brute force and DoS/DDoS attacks: it scans log files for multiple failed authentication attempts and bans related IP addresses by creating ad-hoc firewall rules.
One of the main innovations introduced by Podman was the ability to run rootless containers. Security wise, this was a big improvement, since a potentially compromised container running as root represents a security threat for the host system. In order to obtain a similar behavior, recent versions of Docker support running the docker daemon in the user context. Running unprivileged containers, albeit more secure, has also its drawbacks, as the inability to bind to privileged host ports.
All of the latest Raspberry Pi models have Bluetooth built in, giving users another medium by which they can connect their peripheral devices such as headphones, keyboard, mouse, etc. Ideally, Bluetooth devices should be easy to connect to your Raspberry Pi. The connection process usually involves making your peripheral device discoverable, and then selecting the devices from the Bluetooth list on your Raspberry Pi.
It is always a good idea to keep an eye on the temperature of your Raspberry Pi’s CPU. Although this small processor packs a punch for its size, it is important to remember that it does not have a fan or any other cooling ability by default. That means that if the processor is constantly working hard, CPU temperatures could get high and eventually damage the device.
The latest Raspberry Pi models have WiFi chips built in that allow the device to connect to a wireless network. If you are connected to WiFi on your Raspberry Pi, but experiencing poor speed or dropped connections, it is time to check the WiFi signal strength to begin troubleshooting the issue. Generally, the little WiFi chip built into Raspberry Pi 4, Raspberry Pi 3, or Raspberry Pi Zero W models is about as strong as the one you would find in your mobile phone, but checking the signal strength will tell you if you are close enough to the router or hotspot.
Setting a static IP address for your Raspberry Pi will ensure that the device can always be accessible at the same IP address on your network, since it will never change. This is ideal for a Raspberry Pi being used to host a service such as a gaming server, web server, etc. It makes it more convenient when applying network configurations, since you know that the Raspberry Pi can always be found at the same, predictable IP address.