Below you can find some tips on how to check Ubuntu version you are currently running.

The first place to look for Ubuntu version is to look inside /etc/issue file. From terminal run command:

$ cat /etc/issue
Ubuntu Xenial Xerus \n \l

To obtain a Ubuntu release number check content of /etc/lsb-release file:

$ cat /etc/lsb-release 
DISTRIB_ID=Ubuntu
DISTRIB_RELEASE=16.04
DISTRIB_CODENAME=xenial
DISTRIB_DESCRIPTION="Ubuntu Xenial Xerus

As you may have already notice Ubuntu Xenial Xerus 16.04 Linux Desktop does not come with the ability to login as a root administrator user by default. Every attempt to login as root on a terminal will result in Login incorrect error message:
Ubuntu Xenial Xerus 16.04 root login incorrect.
The reason behind this default Ubuntu Linux desktop behavior is that you rarely need to login as a root user to your GUI desktop. Furthermore, login as root to GUI is highly dangerous and discouraged. The following lines will show you how to gain a root terminal access and how to reset a root password in order to login as root directly.

Using sudo

The recommended way to execute commands as a root user is by using a sudo command. Every time you prefix your command with sudo it will be executed with root privileges. For example the following fdisk -l command with be executed as root. When asked for a password enter your user password:
$ sudo fdisk -l
[sudo] password for linuxconfig: 

The following guide will provide you with some hints and shortcuts on how to open a terminal on Ubuntu Xenial Xerus 16.04 Linux Unity desktop.

Terminal Shortcut

Probably one of the easiest and fastest ways on how to open a terminal on Ubuntu Xenial Xerus 16.04 Linux is by using a keyboard shortcut:
CTRL+ALT+T

Desktop Right-Click Shortcut

The second easiest way is to open your command line terminal by right clicking the desktop screen and selecting "Open Terminal" from the presented drop down menu:
 Ubuntu Xenial Xerus 16.04 open terminal right-click desktop click

zsync is a very handy download tool if you would like to keep your Ubuntu Xenial Xerus ISO image up to date without the need to re-download and entire ISO image every time there was an update. This is especially true with a daily build Ubuntu Xenial Xerus ISO images or if you have a limited download speed or bandwidth. In this case thezsync will allow you to download only that part of the ISO image which has been changed since your last download.

Prerequisites

To get begin let's start by installation of zsync package:
# apt-get install zsync

The following linux commands will assist you with network restart procedure on Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial Xerus Linux. We will start with the most recommended commands and move down to more obscure or obsolete commands in case the above commands will fail from some reason. Let's begin with system and service manager by using systemctl command to restart network service:
$ sudo  systemctl restart NetworkManager.service
Next command service will restart a relevant networking System V init script:
$ sudo service network-manager restart

In this config you will learn how to install a digital distribution platform Steam on Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial Xerus Linux. This guide assumes that your system already have appropriate VGA driver installed.

Installation from UBUNTU Repository

The easiest way to install STEAM on Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial Xerus is by using apt-get command to fetch steam installed directly from Ubuntu's multiverse repository:
$ sudo add-apt-repository multiverse
$ sudo apt-get install steam

The following tutorial will guide you through all steps required to install VGA NVIDIA driver on Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial Xerus Linux.

To install Nvidia driver on other Linux distributions, follow our Nvidia Linux Driver guide.

Let's start by detecting your NVIDIA VGA card model. Open terminal and enter a following linux command:
$  lshw -numeric -C display
or
$ lspci -vnn | grep VGA
The above commands will output your NVIDIA model number. For example:
$ lspci -vnn | grep VGA
01:00.0 VGA compatible controller [0300]: NVIDIA Corporation GK104 [GeForce GTX 680] [10de:1180] (rev a1) (prog-if 00 [VGA controller])

Introduction

CGI ( Common gateway Interface ) is an interface between Web client and the web server that runs your CGI script/program. CGI is a quite old and was largely superseded by different programing languages such as PHP, etc. However, it still can find its place in Linux system administrator's hands as a quick tool for system monitoring and administration via web browser. This article describes in step-by-step manner how to run basic CGI scripts with various programming languages and scripts using Apache web server on Ubuntu Linux.

Install Apache

First we need to install apache web server. This is a fairly simple task and can be achieved with the apt-get command:

$ sudo apt-get install apache2

The above command will install Apache 2 web server with a default site located at: /etc/apache2/sites-available/default. When you open this default configuration site you will see that it is configured to run CGI scripts from /usr/lib/cgi-bin directory with URL alias /cgi-bin/:

This article will provide you with a core information on how to create boot-able Ubuntu Live customized isohybrid image to get you started with your own Ubuntu distro spin-off. The output image will be amd64 customized Ubuntu live image, capable to boot in all three boot modes: Legacy Bios, UEFI and SecureBoot.

The article will not get into much detail about how to perform the actual squashfs system customization. However, instead it will concentrate on all the steps regarding unpacking the official Ubuntu Iso and putting all parts back together to produce bootable isohybrid image supporting Legacy Bios, UEFI and SecureBoot modes.

Prerequisites

As always we start by prerequisites and optional package installation:
$ sudo apt-get install dumpet xorriso squashfs-tools gddrescue

Downloading Ubuntu ISO image

The first part of creating your own customized Linux distro based on the Ubuntu Linux is to download the official Ubuntu ISO image. Create a new directory custom-ubuntu to hold all files required by this project. EFI and its SecureBoot feature is not supported on i386 architecture so download any amd64 version of the Ubuntu ISO image and store it within custom-ubuntu directory:
$ mkdir custom-ubuntu
$ cd custom-ubuntu/
$ wget http://url/to/ubuntu/image.iso

This following guide will show you how to install Spotify client onUbuntu 16.04 (Xenial Xerus ) LTS 64-bit Linux. First, we start by adding a spotify repository:
$ sudo echo 'deb http://repository.spotify.com stable non-free' >> /etc/apt/sources.list
Execute the below command and import non-expired key. Most likely your numeric selection will be 1 as shown below:
# gpg --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com --search-key 'Spotify Public Repository Signing Key'
gpg: data source: http://91.189.89.49:11371
(1)     Spotify Public Repository Signing Key 
          4096 bit RSA key EFDC8610341D9410, created: 2017-07-25, expires: 2018-07-25
(2)     Spotify Public Repository Signing Key 
          4096 bit RSA key 13B00F1FD2C19886, created: 2015-05-28, expires: 2017-11-22 (expired)
(3)     Spotify Public Repository Signing Key 
          2048 bit RSA key 082CCEDF94558F59, created: 2012-06-25, expires: 2015-06-25 (expired)
(4)     Spotify Public Repository Signing Key 
          1024 bit DSA key 4F9946354E9CFF4E, created: 2010-06-23, expires: 2012-06-22 (expired)
Keys 1-4 of 4 for "Spotify Public Repository Signing Key".  Enter number(s), N)ext, or Q)uit > 1
gpg: /root/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg: trustdb created
gpg: key EFDC8610341D9410: public key "Spotify Public Repository Signing Key " imported
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:               imported: 1
To confirm, hence list all imported keys run:
# gpg --list-keys
/root/.gnupg/pubring.kbx
------------------------
pub   rsa4096 2017-07-25 [SC] [expires: 2018-07-25]
      0DF731E45CE24F27EEEB1450EFDC8610341D9410
uid           [ unknown] Spotify Public Repository Signing Key 
Next, update packages index:
$ sudo apt-get update

The following guide will provide an information on how to install SSH Server on Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial Linux. SSH Server uses the secure shell protocol to accept connections from remote clients.

Let's start by installation of SSH package:
$ sudo apt-get install ssh

The following config will discuss an installation of Skype on Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial Xerus 64-bit Linux.

Install from Ubuntu Partner Repository

Below commands will install Skype from Ubuntu's partner repository:
$ sudo add-apt-repository "deb http://archive.canonical.com/ $(lsb_release -sc) partner"
$ sudo dpkg --add-architecture i386
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install skype
Skype should now be installed on you Ubuntu 16.04 system. Use Ubuntu's application menu to start Skype or start Skype directly from your terminal:
$ skype

Manual install

Start manual Skype installation by downloading the latest official skype ubuntu package from http://www.skype.com/en/download-skype/skype-for-linux website.

Alternatively use the wget command below to download Skype Ubuntu package directly from command line. Please not current version of skype may be different:
$ wget http://download.skype.com/linux/skype-ubuntu-precise_4.3.0.37-1_i386.deb
Since we are trying to perform an installation of i386 package on 64-bit system we need to enable multi-architecture to support both platforms:

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$ sudo dpkg --add-architecture i386
$ sudo apt-get update

This short config will show you how to install Spotify client on Ubuntu 14.04 LTS Linux. Let's start by adding a spotify repository:
echo 'deb http://repository.spotify.com stable non-free' >> /etc/apt/sources.list
apt-key adv --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 --recv-keys 13B00F1FD2C19886
apt-get update

This article will describe multiple procedures on how to install various GUI desktop environments on Ubuntu Linux 14.04 LTS (Trusty Thar). The article assumes that no desktop manager nor display manager is currently installed on your system. Furthermore, If the display manager needs to be installed explicitly we will install lightweight XDM. In case that you require different display manager simply replace xdm package listed in below commands with some alternatives such as GDM, KDM, lightdm etc.

UNITY

$ sudo apt-get install ubuntu-desktop
How to install unity desktop on ubuntu linux

GNOME

$ sudo apt-get install ubuntu-gnome-desktop
How to install gnome desktop on ubuntu linux

To check your current and previous runlevel use runlevel command:
# runlevel 
N 2
From the above command output we can see that there was no previous runlevel detected and current run level is 2. Runlevel list defined by the Ubuntu Linux:
  • 1 - Single
  • 2,3,4,5 - User defined runlevels. Default 2
  • 6 - Reboot

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