NFS vs SAMBA vs CIFS

NFS vs SAMBA vs CIFS

NFS, SAMBA, and CIFS are three different terms that get thrown around a lot whenever someone mentions file sharing between two or more systems. But, do you know what these three implementations do, and how they do it differently from one another? For some reason these technologies remain in a shroud of mystery to even some seasoned system administrators.

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Backup, restore, destroy, and install MBR on Linux

Linux Backup Restore Destroy and Install MBR – Master Boot Record

Master Boot Record (MBR) is a type of boot loader that tells a system how the partitions on a disk are organized. Although MBR has been superseded by GUID Partition Table in recent years, MBR is still very prevalent across many systems. Without a boot loader, your system will have a hard time booting into your operating system – whichever Linux distro that may be. As such, it can be useful to learn how to back up and restore the MBR on Linux.

In this guide, we’ll be going over the commands used to backup, restore, destroy, and install MBR to a disk on Linux. Check out the examples below to learn how.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to manage MBR on Linux

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Searching for two different file name patterns in a compressed archive on Linux

Search the contents of compressed gzip archive file on Linux

Archives compressed with gzip have the .tar.gz or .tgz file extension. It’s easy enough to extract the contents from these files, but what if you only need a certain file? There’s not much sense in extracting hundreds or thousands of files from an archive if you’re only looking for a few files.

Fortunately, we can utilize the Linux command line and even GUI archive managers to search the contents of gzip compressed archives. Once we identify the file we want, it’s possible to extract the file by itself, rather than extracting every single file.

In this guide, we’ll show how to search one or multiple gzip archives for a particular file from both command line and GUI.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to search the contents of a compressed gzip archive via command line
  • How to search the contents of a compressed gzip archive via GUI
  • How to search the contents of multiple gzip archives
  • How to extract a particular file from a gzip archive

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maim

Introduction to Ranger file manager

Ranger is a free and open source file manager written in Python. It is designed to work from the command line and its keybindings are inspired by the Vim text editor. The application has a lot of features and, working together with other utilities, can display previews for a vast range of files. In this tutorial we learn how to use it, and explore some of its functionality.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install Ranger on the most used Linux distributions
  • How to launch Ranger and copy its configuration files locally
  • Ranger basic movements and keybindings
  • How to visualize hidden files
  • How to get preview of various types of documents
  • How to create, access and remove bookmarks
  • How to select files and perform actions on them
maim

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Listing the biggest directories on Linux

List all directories and sort by size

When it comes to tidying up your hard drive on Linux, either to free up space or to become more organized, it’s helpful to identify which directories are consuming the most storage space.

In this guide, we’ll show you how to list all directories and sort them by their total size on Linux, through command line examples, a Bash script, and GUI methods.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to list directories by size with du command examples
  • How to list directories by size with a Bash script
  • How to check directory sizes with Disk Usage Analyzer GUI utility

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Mounting an NTFS partition on a Linux system

How to mount partition with ntfs file system and read write access

NTFS stands for New Technology File System and is created by Microsoft for use on their Windows operating systems. It doesn’t see much use on Linux systems, but has been the default file system on Windows for many years. Linux users are probably used to seeing drives with the ext4 file system, which is normally the default and definitely the most widespread in the Linux world.

Although NTFS is a proprietary file system meant especially for Windows, Linux systems still have the ability to mount partitions and disks that have been formatted as NTFS. Thus a Linux user could read and write files to the partition as easily as they could with a more Linux-oriented file system. This can be particularly handy in situations where you recover a disk from a Windows machine and wish to read the contents from your Linux system.

In this guide, we’ll show command line examples of how to mount NTFS partitions on any Linux distribution. This will include examples for mounting with only read access, or read and write access, as well as temporary mounting or persistent mounts that will survive future reboots. Read on to learn how.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install ntfs-3g and fuse on all major Linux distros
  • How to mount NTFS formatted partition on Linux
  • How to persistently mount NTFS partition
  • How to mount NTFS partition with read only and read and write access

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How to configure, mount, and access encrypted partition on Linux

How to encrypt partition in Linux

One of the best ways to protect your files on a Linux system is to enable hard disk encryption. It’s possible to encrypt an entire hard drive or partition, which will keep every file that resides there safe. Without the correct decryption key, prying eyes will only be able to see cryptic gibberish when they try to read your files.

In this guide, we’ll go over the step by step instructions of using LUKS to encrypt a Linux partition. Regardless of what Linux distro you’re running, these steps should work the same. Follow along with us below to get partition encryption configured on your own system.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install cryptsetup on major Linux distros
  • How to create an encrypted partition
  • How to mount or unmount encrypted partition
  • How to setup disk encryption during Linux install
How to configure, mount, and access encrypted partition on Linux

How to configure, mount, and access encrypted partition on Linux

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gpg-logo

How to setup raid1 on Linux

RAID stands for Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks; depending on the RAID level we setup, we can achieve data replication and/or data distribution. A RAID setup can be achieved via dedicated hardware or via software. In this tutorial we see how to implement a RAID1 (mirror) via software on Linux, using
the mdadm utility.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • The peculiarities of the most used RAID levels
  • How to install mdadm on the major Linux distributions
  • How to configure a RAID1 with two disks
  • How to replace a disk in the RAID array

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syncthing-logo

How to keep files and directories synchronized across different devices using syncthing on Linux

Syncthing is defined as a continuous file synchronization program: it can be used to keep files and directories synchronized across different devices or “nodes”. The application uses TLS as encryption method, and it is, together with its protocol, free and open source software. When using Syncthing, our data remains on our device, and is transferred directly to the destination without relaying on a central server (peer to peer). In this tutorial we will see how to install, configure and use Syncthing on Linux.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install Syncthing on the most used Linux distributions
  • How to setup the firewall for Syncthing to work correctly
  • How to share and keep a directory synchronized across two devices
  • How to austostart the Syncthing daemon automatically on user login

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Using mdadm to create a software RAID 1 array on Linux

Linux Software Raid 1 Setup

RAID 1 is a hard disk configuration where the contents from one hard disk are mirrored onto another. This provides the user with some redundancy in case a disk fails. On your Linux system, the two hard drives are represented as a single file system. But in the background, making changes to your files is actually writing the changes to two disks at the same time. You can also add more than two disks to the configuration, as long as you keep the number even. Otherwise, something like RAID 5 will be more suitable.

There are many ways to configure a RAID setup. One of the easiest and most accessible ways is through the mdadm software package, which can be installed and used on any major Linux distribution. This is easier than some other RAID setups, since it doesn’t require any special hardware (like a RAID controller) and isn’t that hard to configure.

In this guide, we’ll go through the step by step instructions to install and setup mdadm on Linux, and create a RAID 1 configuration for two hard disks. Our example scenario will consist of two empty hard disks that are each 10 GB in size. This is in addition to our main hard disk, which is just used for the operating system.

WARNING
Strictly speaking, RAID 1 is not a proper backup solution. It does provide some protection from disk failure, but what if you accidentally delete a file or a virus corrupts multiple files? Those undesirable changes are instantly written to both disks. RAID 1 provides high availability, but you shouldn’t use it as your only backup solution.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install mdadm on major Linux distros
  • How to partition hard disks for RAID setup
  • How to create a new RAID device in mdadm and mount it
  • How to keep the RAID array mount persistent
Using mdadm to create a software RAID 1 array on Linux

Using mdadm to create a software RAID 1 array on Linux

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Logical Volume Manager - Tutorial Scenario

Linux Logical Volume Manager (LVM) tutorial

Logical Volume Manager (LVM) is used on Linux to manage hard drives and other storage devices. As the name implies, it can sort raw storage into logical volumes, making it easy to configure and use.

In this guide, you’ll learn how LVM works on Linux systems. There’s no better way to learn about LVM than simply running through an example, which is exactly what we’ll do in the steps below. LVM works the same on any Linux distribution, so you can use any of the commands below on your own system.

Follow along with us as we use LVM to create partitions, physical volumes, a virtual group, logical volumes, and filesystems on a hard disk. We’ll also show how to mount, extend, and remove our newly created logical volumes. By the end of this tutorial, you’ll have a full understanding of how to use LVM and apply your own configurations.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install LVM on major Linux distros
  • How to create partitions
  • How to create physical volumes
  • How to create a virtual group
  • How to create logical volumes
  • How to create a filesystem on logical volumes
  • How to edit fstab to automatically mount partitions
  • How to mount logical volumes
  • How to extend a logical volume
  • How to remove a logical volume
Logical Volume Manager - Tutorial Scenario

Logical Volume Manager – Tutorial Scenario

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