We are prompted for a username and password when trying to access the protected directory

Apache .htaccess directory access protection

When running an Apache web server on a Linux system, there may be some directories that you don’t want everyone in the world to be able to access. Apache gives us a couple of different tools that website administrators can use to protect a directory.

One of the most common ways to configure restricted access to a folder is through the .htaccess file. Doing this configuration will prompt users for a password whenever they come across the protected URL. But we can also configure the same protection without .htaccess.

In this guide, we’ll go over the step by step instructions for protecting a directory on an Apache web server, through two different methods. Follow along with us to get the password protection set up on your own website.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to protect a directory using .htaccess file
  • How to protect a directory without .htaccess file

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Recover – Reset Forgotten Linux Root Password

The root account, sometimes called super user, is the admin account on a Linux system, and is essential for performing all kinds of administrative tasks. You’ll need access to it in order to install or remove packages, manage other user accounts, and a lot more things. Anytime you access the root account, either through the su or sudo commands, you’ll be prompted for the root password.

If you have forgotten the password to your system’s root account, you don’t necessarily have to go back to square one and reinstall the whole operating system. It’s possible to recover and reset the root password, even without the old password. In this guide, we’ll take you through the step by step instructions of recovering a forgotten root password on Linux. This will work regardless of the Linux distribution you’re running, as long as its using the GRUB bootloader. Other bootloaders will have similar instructions.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to reset a forgotten root password on Linux

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How to configure, mount, and access encrypted partition on Linux

How to encrypt partition in Linux

One of the best ways to protect your files on a Linux system is to enable hard disk encryption. It’s possible to encrypt an entire hard drive or partition, which will keep every file that resides there safe. Without the correct decryption key, prying eyes will only be able to see cryptic gibberish when they try to read your files.

In this guide, we’ll go over the step by step instructions of using LUKS to encrypt a Linux partition. Regardless of what Linux distro you’re running, these steps should work the same. Follow along with us below to get partition encryption configured on your own system.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install cryptsetup on major Linux distros
  • How to create an encrypted partition
  • How to mount or unmount encrypted partition
  • How to setup disk encryption during Linux install
How to configure, mount, and access encrypted partition on Linux

How to configure, mount, and access encrypted partition on Linux

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gpg-logo

How to generate and backup a gpg keypair on Linux

Gnu Privacy Guard (gpg) is the Gnu project free and open source implementation of the OpenGPG standard. The gpg encryption system is called “asymmetric” and it is based on public key encryption: we encrypt a document with the public key of a recipient which will be the only one able to decrypt it, since it owns the private key associated with it. Gpg allows us also to sign documents using our private key and let others verify such signature with our public key. In this tutorial we will see how to generate and create a backup of a gpg keypair.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install gpg
  • How to generate a gpg keypair
  • How to list our keys
  • How to create a backup/export a gpg keypair and trustdb

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Disabling SELinux on CentOS 8

How to disable SELinux on CentOS 8

SELinux, which stands for Security Enhanced Linux, is an extra layer of security control built into Red Hat Enterprise Linux and its derivative Linux distributions, such as CentOS. SELinux is enabled by default on CentOS 8, and would have to be manually disabled if a user doesn’t wish to use it.

Although SELinux can protect our system through access control for programs and system services, it’s not always necessary to have it enabled. Some users may even find that it interferes with certain programs they try to install. In this guide, we’ll go over the step by step instructions to disable SELinux on CentOS 8, both temporarily or persistently across reboots.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to check the status of SELinux
  • How to put SELinux in permissive mode
  • How to disable SELinux

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Creating an SSH tunnel through port forwarding on Linux

Enable SSH port forwarding on Linux

Most Linux users are familiar with the SSH protocol as it allows remote management of any Linux system. It’s also commonly used for SFTP to download or upload files. SSH is known as a very secure protocol because it encrypts traffic end to end. But the encrypted tunnels it creates are actually quite versatile and can be used for more than just remote server management or file transfer.

SSH port forwarding can be used to encrypt the traffic between two systems for pretty much any protocol. This is accomplished by creating a secure tunnel and then routing another protocol’s traffic through that tunnel. By principle, it works very similarly to a VPN.

In this guide, we’ll go over the step by step instructions to show you how to use SSH port forwarding to create a secure tunnel for some other application. As an example, we’ll create port forwarding for the telnet protocol, which is usually avoided because of how it transfers data in clear text. This will secure the protocol and make it safe to use.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to use SSH port forwarding
  • How to create a persistent SSH tunnel

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Save Your Passwords at the Command Line With gopass (With Browser Plugins!)

Save Your Passwords at the Command Line With gopass (With Browser Plugins!)

Having a solid password manager is an absolute must these days, especially if you work in IT or regularly login to various social media. There are various options available under Linux, some more elegant than others. Out of all the options available, one that looks well crafted is gopass.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install gopass, the command line password manager
  • How to setup GPG and Git to work in conjunction with gopass
  • How to use gopass and what benefits and features it offers
  • How to enable the gopass browser extensions available for Firefox, Chrome and Chromium
  • How healthy the gopass and pass (on which it is based) communities and repositories are

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Checking for open ports on Ubuntu Linux with the ss command

How to show/check for open ports on Ubuntu Linux

Some Linux software works by listening for incoming connections. A simple example would be a web server, which handles user requests whenever someone navigates to a website. As a Linux administrator or user, it’s important to always know which ports of your system are open to the internet. Otherwise, you could be unaware of outside connections being made to your computer, which consumes bandwidth and resources, along with being a potential security hole.

In this guide, we’ll see how to check for open ports on Ubuntu Linux. This can be done with several different command line utilities, which we’ll go over in detail. We’ll also see how to use Ubuntu’s ufw firewall to make sure ports are secure. So, do you know which ports of your system are open? Let’s find out.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to check for open ports with ss command
  • How to check for open ports with Nmap utility
  • How to check for and add allowed ports in ufw firewall
Checking for open ports on Ubuntu Linux with the ss command

Checking for open ports on Ubuntu Linux with the ss command

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Disabling SELinux

How to disable SELinux

SELinux, which stands for Security Enhanced Linux, is an extra layer of security control built for Linux systems. The original version of SELinux was developed by the NSA. Other key contributors include Red Hat, which has enabled it by default in their own RHEL and its derivative Linux distributions.

Although SELinux can protect our system through access control for programs and system services, it’s not always necessary to have it enabled. Some users may even find that it interferes with certain programs they try to install. Certain distributions also have their own recommended alternative to SELinux. For example, Ubuntu uses AppArmor, which should be used instead of SELinux. In this guide, we’ll go over the step by step instructions to disable SELinux on all major Linux distributions.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to check the status of SELinux
  • How to put SELinux in permissive mode
  • How to disable SELinux
Disabling SELinux

Disabling SELinux

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How to use bridged networking with libvirt and KVM

How to use bridged networking with libvirt and KVM

Libvirt is a free and open source software which provides API to manage various aspects of virtual machines. On Linux it is commonly used in conjunction with KVM and Qemu. Among other things, libvirt is used to create and manage virtual networks. The default network created when libvirt is used is called “default” and uses NAT (Network Address Translation) and packet forwarding to connect the emulated systems with the “outside” world (both the host system and the internet). In this tutorial we will see how to create a different setup using Bridged networking.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to create a virtual bridge
  • How to add a physical interface to a bridge
  • How to make the bridge configuration persistent
  • How to modify firmware rules to allow traffic to the virtual machine
  • How to create a new virtual network and use it in a virtual machine
How to use bridged networking with libvirt and KVM

How to use bridged networking with libvirt and KVM

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Disabling SELinux on AlmaLinux

How to disable SELinux on AlmaLinux

SELinux, which stands for Security Enhanced Linux, is an extra layer of security control built into Red Hat Enterprise Linux and its derivative Linux distributions, such as AlmaLinux. SELinux is enabled by default on the system, and would have to be manually disabled if a user doesn’t wish to use it.

Although SELinux can protect our system through access control for programs and system services, it’s not always necessary to have it enabled. Some users may even find that it interferes with certain programs they try to install. In this guide, we’ll go over the step by step instructions to disable SELinux on AlmaLinux, whether you’ve freshly installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to check the status of SELinux
  • How to put SELinux in permissive mode
  • How to disable SELinux
Disabling SELinux on AlmaLinux

Disabling SELinux on AlmaLinux

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Resetting a user password on AlmaLinux

How to reset password on AlmaLinux

After installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux, most users will eventually run into the need to do some user account management, such as adding a new user account or resetting a password.

If you or one of the other users of an AlmaLinux system forgets the password to their account, there’s a simple way to reset the password from either command line or GUI. The same steps can also apply if it’s simply time to change your password or you want to force another user’s password to expire and change.

There are several scenarios that you might encounter that cause you to reset your password.

  1. You need to change a normal user or the root account’s password
  2. You want to force a user to change their password
  3. You have forgotten the root account password

In this guide, we’ll be covering the step by step instructions for problems 1 and 2 mentioned above. If you need help resetting your system’s root password, see our other guide for recovering a root password on RHEL.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to change user or root password via command line
  • How to change user password via GNOME GUI
  • How to force a user’s password to expire and be reset
Resetting a user password on AlmaLinux

Resetting a user password on AlmaLinux

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