NTFS stands for New Technology File System and is developed by Microsoft for use on their Windows operating systems. NTFS is not normally used on Linux systems, but has been the default file system on Windows for many years. Linux users are probably used to seeing drives with the ext4 file system, which is ordinarily the default and certainly the most widespread in the Linux realm.
The chmod command is used to assign permissions on files and directories within a Linux system. Chmod can accept many varying syntaxes, such as symbolic mode and absolute mode, therefore it can be a little confusing when learning all the different ways that chmod can be used. When it comes to granting a user execute permissions, the
+x options are often used because of their simple and straightforward syntax. But do you know the difference between these two options?
The Linux operating system allows users to assign granular permissions to all files and directories. Ordinarily, it is sufficient to hand out read, write, and/or execute permissions to individual user accounts or groups of users by utilizing the chmod command. But it is also possible to set granular permissions on a per user basis by configuring access control lists.
Sometimes it is necessary to grant full user rights on an assortment of files in your Linux system. You may have dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of files on which a user needs read, write, and execute permissions in order to fully access and utilize them. In such scenarios, it can be useful to grant full user rights on an entire directory, which gives blanket permissions on all of the directory’s file contents and subdirectories.
File permissions on a Linux system can be represented in either symbolic mode or octal mode. Using octal mode to represent file permissions is a little more succinct, since we can usually list all relevant file permissions with just three numbers. These numbers represent the owner, group, and other user permissions for any file or directory on Linux. In this tutorial, you will see how to get a listing of file permissions in octal mode representation on the Linux command line.
Groups are an essential part of how discretionary access control (DAC) is implemented on Linux and, in general, on any Unix-based operating system. The creation, modification, and removal of groups are relatively straightforward operations which can be carried out using some utilities installed by default.
On Linux, traditionally, a process could either run as root, and so have limitless access to the system, or as a non-root user, subject to a set of restrictions. Since version 2.2 of the kernel, capabilities were introduced as a way to grant permissions in a more granular way.