Introduction to proxmox backup server web interface

Introduction to the Proxmox backup server: the web interface

Proxmox backup server is an enterprise-level solution to backup containers, virtual machines and physical hosts. In the first part of this series, we learned how to download and install the distribution. Although the system can be managed from the command line, just like any other Linux distribution, it comes also with a user-friendly, integrated web interface.

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How to increase the security of Systemd services

How to increase the security of systemd services

Nowadays all major Linux distributions adopted Systemd as their init system/service manager. Creating a systemd service is just a matter of writing a “.service” unit in the appropriate directory, and manage it using the systemctl utility. When starting a service, or launching a process in general, we want to make sure it runs with the lowest possible set of privileges it needs to accomplish the task. Systemd provides a series of options we can be use to fine-tune the behavior of a service, granting or denying privileges in a granular way, and ensuring a certain level of isolation from the rest of the system.

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Understanding Linux Permissions: The Differences between chmod and chown

Understanding Linux Permissions: The Differences between chmod and chown

If you are just starting to learn about file permissions on a Linux system, the chmod and chown commands will be your starting point for granting or revoking file permissions for user accounts. chmod and chown are completely different commands, yet they go hand in hand when it comes to modifying file permissions on the Linux file system. The basic summary is that chown can change the owner of a file, and chmod can change the permissions of the file, but this explanation is only scratching the surface.

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Recovering from Unintended Recursive chmod on System Directories: Steps and Precautions

Recovering from Unintended Recursive chmod on System Directories: Steps and Precautions

When tinkering around in the command line terminal of your Linux system, it is important to be aware that a small mishap can have dire consequences. Most Linux commands are not very forgiving, and there is often not an easy way to “reverse” a command after it has been run, especially on a large batch of files. The chmod command is one such command that users need to be wary of, as unintentionally changing the file permissions for system directories is not reversible, except through a slow, manual process.

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Explaining the Sticky Bit: What the "t" in Linux Directory Permissions Means

Explaining the Sticky Bit: What the “t” in Linux Directory Permissions Means

Most seasoned Linux users are already familiar with basic file permissions like read, write, and execute. These permissions exist on every file and administrators often need to edit such permissions in order to tighten up security or grant file access to certain users. A less common permission that you may not be as intimately familiar with is the “sticky bit.”

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Understanding and Resolving File Ownership Issues on Linux: "Operation not permitted"

Understanding and Resolving File Ownership Issues on Linux: “Operation not permitted”

When attempting to change the ownership of a file on a Linux system, you may encounter the Operation not permitted error if the action fails. This generic error does not give us a lot of insight into what the problem could be, so we must do a little digging to figure out why the error is occurring. In this tutorial, we will go through some troubleshooting steps to determine why this error occurs while trying to change file ownership with the chown Linux command.

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Changing File Permissions on NTFS Partitions in Linux

Changing File Permissions on NTFS Partitions in Linux

NTFS stands for New Technology File System and is developed by Microsoft for use on their Windows operating systems. NTFS is not normally used on Linux systems, but has been the default file system on Windows for many years. Linux users are probably used to seeing drives with the ext4 file system, which is ordinarily the default and certainly the most widespread in the Linux realm.

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Understanding chmod: The Difference Between u+x and +x

Understanding chmod: The Difference Between u+x and +x

The chmod command is used to assign permissions on files and directories within a Linux system. Chmod can accept many varying syntaxes, such as symbolic mode and absolute mode, therefore it can be a little confusing when learning all the different ways that chmod can be used. When it comes to granting a user execute permissions, the u+x and +x options are often used because of their simple and straightforward syntax. But do you know the difference between these two options?

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Assigning File Permissions to Specific Users with chmod and setfacl

Assigning File Permissions to Specific Users with chmod and setfacl

The Linux operating system allows users to assign granular permissions to all files and directories. Ordinarily, it is sufficient to hand out read, write, and/or execute permissions to individual user accounts or groups of users by utilizing the chmod command. But it is also possible to set granular permissions on a per user basis by configuring access control lists.

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Granting Full User Rights to a Folder and Its Contents in Linux

Granting Full User Rights to a Folder and Its Contents in Linux

Sometimes it is necessary to grant full user rights on an assortment of files in your Linux system. You may have dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of files on which a user needs read, write, and execute permissions in order to fully access and utilize them. In such scenarios, it can be useful to grant full user rights on an entire directory, which gives blanket permissions on all of the directory’s file contents and subdirectories.

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Retrieving File Permissions in Octal Mode Using the Command Line

Retrieving File Permissions in Octal Mode Using the Command Line

File permissions on a Linux system can be represented in either symbolic mode or octal mode. Using octal mode to represent file permissions is a little more succinct, since we can usually list all relevant file permissions with just three numbers. These numbers represent the owner, group, and other user permissions for any file or directory on Linux. In this tutorial, you will see how to get a listing of file permissions in octal mode representation on the Linux command line.

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