LAMP server setup on Ubuntu 20.04 Focal Fossa

How to setup LAMP server on Ubuntu 20.04 Focal Fossa

LAMP is a conventional model of web service stacks. The components that LAMP is built from are all open-source and include: the Linux operating system, the Apache HTTP Server, the MySQL relational database management system, and the PHP programming language. In this short tutorial we will be configuring a basic LAMP server on Ubuntu 20.04 Focal Fossa.

You may also be interested in our article on creating a docker based LAMP stack on Ubuntu 20.04.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install LAMP server on Ubuntu 20.04.
  • How to open firewall port to allow HTTP and HTTPS incoming traffic.
  • How to connect to MySQL database using a PHP script.

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Using cookies in PHP

How to enable sessions in PHP with cookies

Cookies are all around in our everyday life while we browse the Internet. Most people wouldn’t know much about them, if not for those “our website uses cookies to be operational” signs that are on mostly any page now since GDPR. Cookies have a long history if sometimes being good, sometimes bad. As it is usual with most aspects of the world, this technology can be used in a good or bad way.

In this tutorial we will explore cookies a bit from the server side programming perspective: we’ll create an example cookie in PHP, and store the visitor’s chosen username in it. The cookie will reside in the browser of the visitor, so on the next visit we can read it and use it to greet the visitor on the username submitted.

Our simple webpage will recognize the visitor as long as the cookie is present in the browser. We do not store any information on the server side: if the visitor first checks in from a PC, and next time from a smartphone, we will not know it is the same individual. This is one of the main point with cookies: we can only identify the given client, and only as long as the data is provided by that particular browser.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to setup the test environment
  • How to write a simple example program that uses cookies
  • How to test the workings of the program
  • How to reset the environment

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How to analyze and interpret Apache Log

How to analyze and interpret Apache Webserver Log

Apache web servers can generate a lot of logs. These logs contain information such as the HTTP requests that Apache has handled and responded to, and other activities that are specific to Apache. Analyzing the logs is an important part of administering Apache and ensuring that it runs as expected.

In this guide, we’ll go over the different logging options present in Apache and how to interpret this log data. You’ll learn how to analyze the logs that Apache produces and how to configure the logging settings to give you the most relevant data about what Apache is doing.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • Configure and understand Apache webserver logging
  • What are Apache log levels
  • How to interpret Apache log formatting and its meaning
  • What are the most common Apache log configuration files
  • How to extend logging configuration to include forensic data

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How to benchmark Webserver with Apache Bench

How to benchmark Webserver with Apache Bench

Apache Bench is a tool used to measure the performance of a web server. Despite having “Apache” in its name, it can actually be used to test any type of web server. In this tutorial, we’ll go over the steps to use Apache Bench and how to interpret its report about a web server’s performance.

Apache Bench works by sending varying amounts of HTTP requests to the web server and recording the response times. It can tell you how much congestion the server can handle before it gets overwhelmed and performance diminishes.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install Apache Bench
  • How to use Apache Bench
  • How to interpret Apache Bench Results

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Installation of Apache Web Server on RHEL 8 / CentOS 8 using dnf command

How to install Apache on RHEL 8 / CentOS 8 Linux

The Apache HTTP Server or simply Apache, is free and open-source cross-platform web server software developed and maintained by Apache Software Foundation. Apache is a easy to learn and configure web server providing an ability to host websites mainly via HTTP or HTTPS protocols. Under RHEL 8 / CentOS 8 system Apache webserver is know under name httpd.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install Apache webserver
  • How to enable and start Apache webserver
  • How to open firewall HTTP port 80
  • How to create basic same website

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HDFS Architecture

How to install Hadoop on RHEL 8 / CentOS 8 Linux

Apache Hadoop is an open source framework used for distributed storage as well as distributed processing of big data on clusters of computers which runs on commodity hardwares. Hadoop stores data in Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) and the processing of these data is done using MapReduce. YARN provides API for requesting and allocating resource in the Hadoop cluster.

The Apache Hadoop framework is composed of the following modules:

  • Hadoop Common
  • Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)
  • YARN
  • MapReduce

This article explains how to install Hadoop Version 2 on RHEL 8 or CentOS 8. We will install HDFS (Namenode and Datanode), YARN, MapReduce on the single node cluster in Pseudo Distributed Mode which is distributed simulation on a single machine. Each Hadoop daemon such as hdfs, yarn, mapreduce etc. will run as a separate/individual java process.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to add users for Hadoop Environment
  • How to install and configure the Oracle JDK
  • How to configure passwordless SSH
  • How to install Hadoop and configure necessary related xml files
  • How to start the Hadoop Cluster
  • How to access NameNode and ResourceManager Web UI

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Examples page served by Apache Tomcat

How to install apache tomcat on Linux RHEL 8 / CentOS 8

In this tutorial we will learn how to install Apache Tomcat 8 application container to RHEL 8 / CentOS 8. We will be using the zip package available to download from the Apache Tomcat website. As this package will not handle setting up the environment, we will create it from the command line.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install Apache Tomcat from zip file
  • How to create the environment for the Tomcat server from command line
  • How to add basic service file to systemd
  • How to enable autostart, start and stop the Tomcat server
  • How to verify Tomcat is reachable

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Tomcat providing the examples application

How to set up Apache webserver proxy in front of Apache Tomcat on Red Hat Linux


Our objective is to setup Apache httpd to work as a proxy in front of the Apache Tomcat application container.

Operating System and Software Versions

  • Operating system: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.5
  • Software: Apache httpd, Apache Tomcat


Privileged access to the system




  • # – requires given linux commands to be executed with root privileges either directly as a root user or by use of sudo command
  • $ – given linux commands to be executed as a regular non-privileged user


Using Apache httpd as a proxy to an Apache Tomcat application container is a common setup. It comes with many use cases, the most trivial is serving static content from httpd, while providing services implementing heavy business logic from an application written in Java that resides in the Tomcat container.

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