Introduction

Branching allows git to track multiple lines of development. This essentially allows you to have multiple versions of your project in development at the same time. For example, many projects will choose to have a stable master branch while new features or bug fixes are implemented in a development or testing branch. Once the project organizers are satisfied that the changes made in the development branch have reached the required level of maturity, they may choose to merge those changes into the master branch.

For many larger projects this cycle will often be repeated indefinitely. The benefit of implementing this strategy is that it helps to reduce the introduction of mistakes into the primary version of the codebase and therefore reduces the occurrence of bugs and other potential adverse behavior in the software. Simultaneously, it allows developers to test new ideas without restrictions. Therefore, they may continue to creatively contribute to the project in an efficient manner.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • What is branching
  • How to create branches
  • How to switch between branches
  • How to delete branches
  • How to merge branches
  • How to manage tags
  • How to use tags to keep track of versioning
  • How to work with branches and tags on remote repositories

In this article, we'll cover and compare some of the most popular Linux distributions to use for a live CD/DVD. Furthermore, you'll be given the information you need to make a decision about which one to use, as well as the links to the official Linux downloads pages for each Linux distribution.

Many Linux distributions offer an environment that you can boot your computer into without having to install anything to a hard drive. For some Linux distros, this is actually their main purpose. This is called a "live file system" and it allows you to boot into Linux like normal from a CD, DVD, or USB drive.

With a live file system, changes you make normally aren't saved after a reboot. When you boot to a live CD/DVD/USB, system files and everything else are stored temporarily in RAM, and RAM is always cleared when a system shuts down or reboots.

PureOS GNU/Linux (or "LiGNUx") is a distribution built on 100% free software. It's based on Debian and is a distro that's highy focused on privacy and security. For other most popular Linux distributions please visit our dedicated linux download page.

PureOS uses Purebrowser, which is based on Firefox and developed to follow PureOS's privacy goals. It uses the DuckDuckGo search engine by default, which doesn't track user data. PureOS also comes with many other enhanced security features enabled by default, such as the HTTPS Everywhere extension that encrypts your data with unsecure websites.

PureOS uses the GNOME desktop environment by default and only supports 64 bit CPUs. It's listed on GNU's website as one of only a handful of operating systems that contain strictly free software. It's also endorsed by the Free Software Foundation.

PureOS is geared towards home computing. It promotes totally free software and user privacy. If you're an advocate for those ideals, this distro may be a good fit for you. Trisquel LiGNUx is another similar choice that features only free software.

Trisquel GNU/Linux (or "LiGNUx") is a distribution built on 100% free software. It's based on Ubuntu (and inherently Debian) but with all the proprietary bits stripped out or replaced with free alternatives. For other most popular Linux distributions please visit our dedicated linux download page.

Trisquel is geared towards home users, small businesses, and educational centers. It's listed on GNU's website as one of only a handful of operating systems that contain strictly free software. Among them, it's one of the most popular. It's also endorsed by the Free Software Foundation.

Trisquel's flagship version comes with the MATE desktop environment installed. It's similar to Ubuntu's default GNOME environment but provides a more traditional feel and does a better job of supporting older hardware.

Solus Linux is a desktop focused distribution built from scratch. It aims to present a clean and simple operating system experience for home computing. For other most popular Linux distributions please visit our dedicated linux download page.

The flagship edition of Solus features the Budgie desktop environment, which was developed in house. It offers a rather traditional desktop feel with a high focus on simplicity and functionality. Budgie has since become a popular choice even outside of Solus, for example being offered as an official flavor of Ubuntu.

Solus is similar to Linux Mint in many ways, as both distros are designed for home computing and have developed their own desktop environments to enhance ease of use. Unlike Mint, though, Solus only offers releases in 64 bit and has a rolling release schedule (more on that below).

Solus comes packed with support for everything you'd need on a home PC, including office apps, media editors, developer tools, and gaming software. Most tools are included by default but you can install other things quickly from the package manager.

Introduction

If you have been using GNU/Linux for any amount of time chances are pretty good that you have heard of git. You may be wondering, what exactly is git and how do I use it? Git is the brainchild of Linus Torvalds, who developed it as source code management system during his work on the Linux kernel.

Since then it has been adopted by many software projects and developers due to its track record of speed and efficiency along with its ease of use. Git has also gained popularity with writers of all kinds, since it can be used to track changes in any set of files, not just code.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • What is Git
  • How to install Git on GNU/Linux
  • How to Configure Git
  • How to use git to create a new project
  • How to clone, commit, merge, push and branch using the git command

Clear Linux is Intel's entry into the Linux space. It's a free and open source distro that Intel has developed for maximum performance. For other most popular Linux distributions please visit our dedicated linux download page.

Unsurprisingly, Clear Linux has been optimized to perform very well on Intel hardware. Being developed by a hardware giant means that the operating system can undergo improvements that more community driven Linux distributions may be likely to neglect.

Puppy Linux specializes in being a super lightweight desktop distribution with user friendly features. The entire operating system only weighs in at about 300 MB and its system requirements are incredibly small.

It's a great distro for restoring an old computer or providing a simple interface to casual PC users. For other most popular Linux distributions please visit our dedicated linux download page.

Puppy is simple and straight forward, similar to Ubuntu and Linux Mint in this regard. However, it comes with far fewer packages and leaves a much smaller footprint. Other distributions feel bloated when contrasted with Puppy.

Puppy Linux is more accurately defined as a collection of distributions. There are multiple "puppies" available for download, including versions based on Slackware, Ubuntu, and Raspbian. That's what has been officially released, but there are a slew of community "remasters" available as well, called "puplets". As you can see, Puppy likes to coin a lot of their own terms.

Restricting access to a resource is often required when using the web. On complex web applications, this is often implemented using a login system which can be more or less sophisticated. If our requirements our pretty basic, however, we can use the authentication system provided by the Apache web server. In this tutorial we will see how can we do it.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to restrict access to a web page using the Apache web server
  • How to store the user passwords in plain text files
  • How to store the user passwords in a database
  • How to allow access to multiple users

OpenSUSE is the free alternative to SUSE Linux, an enterprise level distro that goes toe to toe with Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Essentially, OpenSUSE is the non-commercial edition of the enterprise distribution.

For other most popular Linux distributions please visit our dedicated linux download page.

OpenSUSE naturally lends itself very well to servers and workstations, but also brands itself as a user friendly desktop operating system. OpenSUSE stacks up very well against similarly aimed distros like Red Hat and CentOS.

It's a very stable, secure, and tested distro that's been used by many small corporations and casual Linux users the world over since 2005.

Manjaro is based on Arch Linux and retains the same qualities of being simple and minimalistic. Manjaro and Arch both target desktop computers, but they both cater to different types of users.

Manjaro builds on Arch by making the distro more user friendly. It's a clean and sleek operating system, sporting much fewer packages installed by default than other distributions like Ubuntu. It's a good choice for users concerned with speed and simplicity. For other most popular Linux distributions please visit our dedicated linux download page.

Manjaro is only available for 64 bit CPU architectures. Manjaro's website has several editions, including "official" and "community", which both contain a number of different supported desktop environments. Manjaro also supports ARM and has a download tailored to Raspberry Pi systems.

Arch Linux is an independently developed Linux distribution geared towards experienced Linux users. Its main aim is on simplicity and minimalism. There are not many packages installed by default, basically just what the system absolutely needs in order to run. There isn't even a desktop environment unless you install one yourself.

The result of this approach is a lean and mean operating system with a lot of options for customization. Arch is recommended for Linux veterans that want more control over their system. If you're brand new to Linux, Ubuntu and Linux Mint are designed to give you an easier introduction. For other most popular Linux distributions please visit our dedicated linux download page.

Arch Linux sits close to the bleeding edge, making it more suited for a desktop computer or Raspberry Pi, etc. Arch Linux only has a command line interface by default, but there are a lot of desktop environments that it officially supports, including GNOME, Xfce, KDE, and many of the other most common choices for Linux users.

Manjaro is based on Arch Linux, taking its best features and adding a dash of user friendliness. It's a good distro to check out if you appreciate Arch's ideals but are a little intimidated by the complexity of configuring things from the ground up.

Linux Mint is based on Ubuntu and belongs to the Debian family of Linux distributions. For other most popular Linux distributions please visit our dedicated linux download page.

Mint took the user friendliness of Ubuntu and kicked it up a notch. This distro was developed to specialize in being easy to use and welcoming to newcomers. As such, it comes preloaded with all the software and utilities that most desktop users will need.

After years with GNOME as its default desktop environment, Mint developers created their own desktop called Cinnamon. This marked a return to traditional desktop metaphor conventions and led to a less confusing desktop for new Linux users.

In this article, we'll cover and compare some of the most popular Linux distributions. Furthermore, you'll be given the information you need to make a decision about which one to use, as well as the links to the official Linux downloads pages for each Linux distribution.

DID YOU KNOW?
When people say "Linux," what are they actually referring to? Linux isn't technically an operating system itself, but a kernel that serves as the foundation for a fully packaged operating system.

Linux distributions, or distros, all share the same kernel but come preloaded with a slew of software and utilities. These additions are what make Linux usable out of the box and give the user an operating system experience. They're also what make each distribution unique. Such software usually includes a package manager, desktop environment, and other common tools you'd expect to find.

The cURL linux command can use various network protocols to download and upload data on Linux. Normally, using the cURL command is pretty basic, but it has a ton of options and can grow more complicated very quickly. In this guide, we'll go over some of the more common uses for the cURL command and show you syntax examples so you can use it on your own system.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • What is cURL and what can it do?
  • How cURL compares to wget
  • How to download a file from a website with cURL
  • How to follow redirects
  • How to download and untar a file automatically
  • How to authenticate with cURL
  • How to download headers with cURL
  • How to use quiet mode with cURL

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