Introduction

It's probably best to think of WINE prefixes sort of like virtual machines. They're not virtual machines, but they do behave somewhat similarly. A WINE prefix is a folder that contains all of the WINE configurations as well as all of the Windows pieces that WINE uses for compatibility, including libraries and a registry. The default WINE prefix is ~/.wine, but different and multiple prefixes can be used.

Introduction

Many programs work under WINE with absolutely no configuration. The second WINE is installed, it can flawlessly run them. Unfortunately, that isn't always the case, and applications are constantly being updated, so the list of flawless applications is always changing. It's a good thing that WINE can be configured to accommodate potentially troublesome programs.

There are two main utilities for doing so, winecfg and winetricks. This guide will cover the former, and a future guide will handle the latter. Most of the time, though, winecfg is enough to get an application running.

winecfg is a graphical utility. Different distributions and desktop environments handle WINE and WINE applications differently, so the easiest way to open it up on any distribution is to run winecfg in a terminal.

When the application opens, you will notice a plain window with seven or eight tabs, depending on which version of WINE you're running. The eighth tab is "Staging," and like the name suggests, is only available when the staging patches have been applied to WINE.

Intro

There are plenty of reasons why people would need to encrypt a partition. Whether they're rooted it privacy, security, or confidentiality, setting up a basic encrypted partition on a Linux system is fairly easy. This is especially true when using LUKS, since its functionality is built directly into the kernel.

Installing Cryptsetup

Debian/Ubuntu

On both Debian and Ubuntu, the cryptsetup utility is easily available in the repositories. The same should be true for Mint or any of their other derivatives.
$ sudo apt-get install cryptsetup

Git is a version control system which means that it allows you to keep track of your code or any kind of text throughout the development. Meaning, you can rewind back and forward to any stage of the code development. Without going into much detail, this is done mainly via few basic commands: clone, add,commit, push and pull.

Intro

NVIDA supports Linux with its proprietary drivers nearly as well as it does Windows. That said, it's no secret that NVIDIA has long been the go-to choice for gaming on Linux. Unfortunately, even though the drivers support Linux well, installing them can become more complicated when dealing with different distributions. In many cases, the process is very simple but not well documented. In others, it's a bit tougher, but there is no reason that you can't get the latest NVIDIA drivers for your graphics card working on most major distributions.

Objective

The objective is to first export XenServer's virtual machine into a regular backup file and later import a new virtual machine from the previously generated backup file.

Requirements

Privileged access to XenServer's command line.

Difficulty

EASY

Instructions

Identify VM's UUID

We start by identifying a virtual machine we would lake to export to as a regular backup file. Run xe vm-list to list all available virtual machines and take a note of the virtual machine in question:
# xe vm-list
uuid ( RO)           : 7371124f-7d4d-66b7-cbc7-a98b1457543e
     name-label ( RW): Debian Jessie 8.5
    power-state ( RO): halted


uuid ( RO)           : bad8e456-df88-435d-ba12-3f0f6e54b2c6
     name-label ( RW): Control domain on host: xenserver
    power-state ( RO): running

Objective

The objective is to create a new snapshot of a XenServer virtual machine and later restore from this snapshot.

Requirements

Privileged access to XenServer's command line.

Difficulty

EASY

Instructions

Identify VM's UUID

First, we need to identify a VM's UUID we wish to take a snapshot from. Use xe vm-list to list all available VM:
# xe vm-list
uuid ( RO)           : 7371124f-7d4d-66b7-cbc7-a98b1457543e
     name-label ( RW): Debian Jessie 8.5
    power-state ( RO): halted


uuid ( RO)           : bad8e456-df88-435d-ba12-3f0f6e54b2c6
     name-label ( RW): Control domain on host: xenserver
    power-state ( RO): running


appliance-assert-can-be-recovered
reqd params : uuid
optional params : database:
description : Test whether storage is available to recover this VM appliance.
appliance-create
reqd params : name-label
optional params : name-description
description : Create a VM appliance.

Objective

The objective is to set a new name label on a existing XenServer's VM ( virtual machine ).

Requirements

Privileged access to XenServer's command line as well as configured ISO image storage containing an ISO image of the Linux distribution you wish to install.

Difficulty

EASY

Instructions

Identify VM's UUID

In order to set/rename VM's name label we fisrt need to identify its UUID. List all VM's and take a note of a relevant UUID. Example:
# xe vm-list
uuid ( RO)           : bad8e456-df88-435d-ba12-3f0f6e54b2c6
     name-label ( RW): Control domain on host: xenserver
    power-state ( RO): running


uuid ( RO)           : 699dcb0c-e897-5bd4-30c1-ab1dd9a3ca4e
     name-label ( RW): Debian Jessie 8.0
    power-state ( RO): halted

Objective

Deployment of XenServer virtual machine using command line.

Requirements

Privileged access to XenServer's command line as well as configured ISO image storage containing an ISO image of the Linux distribution you wish to install.

Difficulty

MODERATE

Instructions

Deploy VM template and gather information

In this guide we will be creating a new Ubuntu Linux based virtual machine. However, the below procedure will fit any decent Linux distribution as along as it is supported by XenServer, meaning that the template for the Linux distribution you would like to install is part of the XenServer's repertoire. Let's first search XenServer's database for a template name.

In this case we are looking for Ubuntu 16.04:
# xe template-list | grep name-label | grep -i 16.04
          name-label ( RW): Ubuntu Xenial Xerus 16.04

Objective

The Virtual Machine creation using template provisioner may spawn unnamed VDI disks. Usually, the VID description states Created by template provisioner at most. Example:
uuid ( RO)                : 093e128a-2632-43bd-bb45-8f864bc69d6f
          name-label ( RW): 0
    name-description ( RW): Created by template provisioner
             sr-uuid ( RO): 3ef7b35b-5d39-7414-0c91-bbb281b9a521
        virtual-size ( RO): 21474836480
            sharable ( RO): false
           read-only ( RO): false
The objective is to set a proper name and description to VDI disk.

Installing WINE

Since there are multiple available versions of WINE, there are different ways to install it as well. Of course, each distribution also packages and ships WINE differently, and most only ship one or two versions of it. Thankfully, there are third party repositories available, and, when all else fails, WINE can be compiled from source. Unless you’re running Gentoo, source should probably be the last resort, since it’s obviously harder to maintain, but it can work in cases where you want a custom WINE build that isn’t packaged for your distro.

Introduction

The ability to monitor the temperatures of key components is important, whether you’re gaming, overclocking, or doing something more businesslike and running a critical server. Linux includes modules in the kernel that allow it to access onboard sensors within components. Though, that alone is not enough.

There is a program that does work in conjunction with those modules to display the readings of those sensors in the userspace. That program is lm_sensors. Lm_sensors allows users to get a readout of sensor readings in the command line and interfaces with several graphical front ends that make displaying temperatures in real time automatic and easy.

Installation

Lm_sensors is in nearly every distro’s repositories. In most cases, installation is as simple as a single command. Since it lm_sensors is a daemon, it will need to be started in all distributions, but the Debian based ones, which start it automatically.

Ubuntu

$ sudo apt-get install lm-sensors

Debian

# apt-get install lm-sensors

Objective

Here we assume that you have already created VM's device to link to desired ISO image you wish to boot from. The objective is to instruct XenServer's host virtual machine to boot from ISO CD/DVD image instead of default VDI disk. Failure to do so may result in following error message:
The bootloader returned an error
msg: Unable to find partition containing kernel

Objective

Suppose that we have included a new item to our Xenserver's storage repository such as the newly downloaded ISO images. XenServer would not list this item immediately and thus this requires a manual action to include this new item into XenServer's storage repository list. The objective is to rescan XenServer's storage repository thus make all new items available for use.

Requirements

Administrative Local or Remote command line access to XenServer is required to complete this task.

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