Regular, when writing a command - both easy and complex ones - one will want to access more detailed information about the command and it’s available options. There is a wealth of information available in the Linux manual pages, and this is provided free of charge, and is available with just a few keystrokes.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to access the manual page for a given command
  • How to access inline help for a given command
  • How to search all manuals for a given search term
  • How to access manual pages for builtin commands
  • How to access the manual using a GUI (graphical user interface)
  • Examples showing various manual usage use cases
How to Access Manual Pages for Linux Commands
How to Access Manual Pages for Linux Commands

Parrot OS is a Linux distribution with a heavy focus on user privacy and penetration testing. It's based on Debian Linux. For other most popular Linux distributions, please visit our dedicated Linux download page.

When people think of penetration testing distributions, usually Kali Linux is the first one that comes to mind. While there's definitely some functional overlap, the two distributions have a lot of differences. First impressions of Parrot make it clear that it's more of a privacy-focused distro than a hacking one.

Parrot inherits a lot of Debian's traits, like using the APT package manager, from which it can install a staggering number of packages that are available in Debian's repos. Parrot also maintains their own repos full of penetration testing and privacy tools.

Parrot makes a point of "staying quiet" by disabling network services by default. This creates a smaller RAM footprint but also helps keep the system hidden if you're on a target network. It also disables auto mounting by default. These extra security measures are nice, but may be frustrating for a novice that wants their system to "just work."

Parrot's passion for privacy becomes immediately apparent when browsing through the default applications that are included with the distro. You'll find the Tor browser already installed, and various Firefox privacy plugins like uBlock Origin, Privacy Badger, and HTTPS Everywhere. It's nice having a distro that works so hard to protect your privacy. This can make it very attractive as a daily driver for some users. You don't need to be a cybersecurity professional or penetration tester to use this distribution, though it can definitely fill those purposes well.

The Snap package manager, known as snapd, is a relatively new feature in the Linux ecosystem. It allows a user to install Snap packages, called Snaps, across a wide range of Linux distributions and versions. This works differently than the traditional method of installing packages via a package manager like APT, where applications are packaged and installed as part of the operating system.

Snaps are self-contained and run in a sandbox, making new software pretty safe to install. The Snaps can be browsed and installed from the Snapcraft App Store. Snap gives developers an easy way to push updates for their applications, as well as usage data to help them improve.

Newer versions of Ubuntu should already have Snap enabled, as Canonical developed the feature and first introduced it on their own distribution. It's also available for most other Linux distributions, but must be installed first.

In this guide, we'll show you how to install the Snap package manager, snapd, on all major Linux systems. We'll also show how to get started with searching the Snap store, and installing or removing Snaps from your system.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to enable Snap package manager on all major Linux distros
  • How to install and uninstall Snap packages (Snaps)
Installing a Snap package on Linux
Installing a Snap package on Linux

CentOS and Fedora are two of the most well known and widespread Linux distributions. They're both based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), which means Fedora and CentOS bear a lot of similarities to their ancestor, but also to each other.

In this guide, we'll be comparing the two distributions across a few key areas and giving a brief review of both distros. Read on to learn more about CentOS and Fedora and how they compare. By the end of this article, you'll be armed with enough information to choose the best distro for your needs.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • CentOS and Fedora background information
  • CentOS and Fedora similarities and differences
  • Which distro should I use, CentOS or Fedora?

Elementary OS is based on Ubuntu and belongs to the Debian family of Linux distributions. For other most popular Linux distributions, please visit our dedicated Linux download page.

Elementary is reminiscent of Linux Mint, an Ubuntu derivative with an extra dose of user friendliness. It's a great distro for those looking to dip their toe into the Linux pool, before moving on to a more robust distro.

The developers of Elementary have taken big strides to ensure a user friendly experience. Elementary includes a custom desktop environment called Pantheon, along with custom apps for Photos, Music, Videos, and all the other essentials. Pantheon has some unique features that can help you keep your desktop clean and increase your workflow, namely multi-tasking views, picture in picture, and do not disturb mode.

The file browser is also unique, with a built in search feature and options to categorize the files and applications. Being part of the Debian family allows new software to be installed in terminal via the APT package manager, but there's also Elementary's AppCenter, which features only the applications that Elementary has approved and certified as privacy-respecting and secure.

Elementary is big on privacy and has a few components to help you monitor the applications on your system. It helps you keep tabs on apps that utilize your microphone or location, so you are notified of misbehaving and untrustworthy software. The operating system also tidies up your cache files automatically to free up space and clear potentially private data.

Arch Linux is often praised for it’s bleeding edge software and rolling release model. We discuss these features more in depth in our article comparing Arch Linux and Manjaro. In addition to this praise, Arch Linux also has a reputation for being unstable. This reputation stems from the sometimes unpredictable nature of bleeding edge software. The latest software from upstream developers may contain bugs that were not apparent during initial testing. As a result, the risk is always present that updating with the package manager, pacman, may bring about unexpected results. These may include a specific piece of software no longer working properly (or at all) or even multiple applications or Desktop Environments no longer working as expected.

Backing up your GNU/Linux system regularly is the best safeguard to mitigate the headache this could cause. There is no shortage of backup solutions for Linux; some of the backup options include dd, BackupPC, rsync, Fsarchiver , rsnapshot. If you have a regular backup solution in place then it can be comforting to know that you could restore from a backup in the event that a pacman update caused issues, but it would be ideal if you didn’t have to. In this article we will show you how to roll back pacman updates in Arch Linux. There are two ways to accomplish this. One way is via the pacman cache; the other is by using the Arch Linux Archive. We will discuss both methods.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to rollback Arch Linux updates using the pacman cache
  • How to rollback Arch Linux updates using the Arch Linux Archive

The SSH (Secure Shell) protocol provides the ability to perform encrypted communications over computer networks. Typical operations we can perform using the protocol are remote login and remote command executions. When we login on a remote computer (with the ssh utility, for example), we are requested to provide the password for the account we are using to login. For enhanced security we can decide to use SSH keys as credentials: once the SSH server is configured appropriately, to be able to login we must know something (the password) but also possess something (a key). In this tutorial we see how to generate, manage and use SSH keys.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • What is a SSH keypair
  • What is the difference between a private and public ssh key and what is their role
  • How to generate SSH keypairs
  • How to modify the password of a private ssh key
  • How to transfer public keys to an ssh server

MX Linux is based on Debian's "stable" branch. It's a conjoined effort between the antiX and now-defunct MEPIS Linux distro communities. For other most popular Linux distributions, please visit our dedicated Linux download page.

MX naturally bears some resemblance to Debian and antiX Linux distributions, but includes enough unique features to be markedly different. It brands itself as a "midweight" operating system, meaning it may not be the most ideal distro for old systems, but you certainly don't need a high end PC to run it.

You have two different GUI choices when downloading MX, although more can be easily installed. One is KDE, but the flagship download is Xfce with Fluxbox. Keep in mind that this isn't the usual Fluxbox window manager - MX has made their own changes to make it integrate smoothly with the operating system. Newcomers are presented with a lightning fast, minimalistic user interface that focuses on staying out of your way.

MX doesn't include a lot of software out of the box, giving it a small footprint when compared to its ancestor or other Debian-based distros like Ubuntu. New tools are easy to install from the MX Package Installer application or APT package manager.

When using the Apache web server, .htaccess files (also called “distributed configuration files”) are used to specify configuration on a per-directory basis, or more generally to modify the behavior of the Apache web server without having to access virtual hosts files directly (this is usually impossible for example, on shared hosts). In this tutorial we see how we can establish URL redirections and rewriting rules inside .htaccess files.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How .htaccess files work
  • How to setup URL rewriting rules in .htaccess files using the RewriteRule directive
  • How to setup URL redirection rules in .htaccess files using the Redirect and RedirectMatch directives

Opera is a web browser based on the Chromium project. While not as popular as Mozilla Firefox or Google Chrome, it has been around a lot longer than both of them and offers a great web browsing experience with its sleek user interface.

Although it's based on an open source project, Opera developers include their own closed source and proprietary additions in the final package. This is frowned upon in the Linux world, which means that Opera is almost never the default browser on a Linux distribution. Furthermore, it may not be included in official repositories, so it can't even be installed (by default) with a distro's package manager.

Despite this, it's not hard to install Opera on a Linux system. You just need to follow a couple extra steps. In this guide, we'll show you the step by step instructions for installing the Opera web browser an all popular Linux distributions.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install Opera on Debian, Red Hat, and Arch Linux based systems

Chromium is an open source browser maintained by Google. Along with the Chromium browser itself, Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge, Opera, Vivaldi, and a slew of other notable web browsers are all based on the Chromium source code. It's safe to say that Chromium plays a huge role in the way that many users view the web today.

Despite Chromium's influence, it's far more common to see Mozilla Firefox as the default web browser on Linux systems. Chromium is still the default browser on some systems and is almost always able to be installed directly from a distro's package manager. Contrast this to a browser like Google Chrome, whose closed source precludes it from being as easily installed on Linux.

While Chromium is a fully functional browser on its own, it's missing support for propriety codecs like H.264 and AAC. At the cost of minor inconveniences like this, you'll be getting a open source, Chrome-like browser. We dive more into this topic in our Firefox vs. Chrome/Chromium guide.

In this guide, we'll see how to install Chromium on all major Linux distributions.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install Chromium on Debian, Red Hat, and Arch Linux based systems

When browsing the web, your computer can communicate with websites through two different protocols: HTTP and HTTPS. HTTPS is the safer version of HTTP, with the "S" standing for "secure." Whether a website is configured to communicate with its users securely or not is up to the site administrator.

On certain websites, you may notice Mozilla Firefox or another modern browser indicating that "your connection is not secure." This basically means that the website is using HTTP instead of HTTPS. Whether a site is using HTTP or HTTPS will always be indicated by the padlock symbol next to the URL of a site.

In this guide, we'll go over this security warning, talk about the seriousness of it, and give some tips for how you can protect yourself when browsing the web with Firefox on a Linux system.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • Why are some sites still using HTTP?
  • Why is it important for sites to use HTTPS?
  • What can I do to protect myself when browsing a site with HTTP?

The "bleeding edge" is a term used to describe brand new software that's not guaranteed to be stable. It remains largely untested, but comprises all the latest features that will be deployed to the masses after further experimenting. Kali Linux, by virtue of being based on Debian's testing branch, already sits pretty close to the edge.

You can configure your Kali system to download even newer software packages by adding Kali's bleeding edge repo to APT package manager. This is ideal for users that want access to the newest software and features and don't need their system to be ultra stable.

In this guide, we'll show you the step by step instructions for configuring the bleeding edge repo on Kali Linux, as well as the Debian unstable and experimental repositories.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to add bleeding edge repo to Kali
  • How to add Debian unstable and experimental repos to Kali

Mozilla Firefox comes installed by default on Kali Linux and a ton of other Linux distributions. It's a solid web browser but it's the user's responsibility to make sure Firefox stays up to date.

The process for updating Firefox is a little different on Kali. Kali is based on Debian's testing branch, which uses Firefox ESR (Extended Support Release).

Firefox ESR is essentially a more stable version of Firefox which is geared mainly towards enterprise systems. It usually doesn't have all the latest features that are available in other Firefox installs, but includes the most stable and thoroughly tested components.

In this guide, we'll see how to update Firefox ESR from the command line on Kali Linux.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to update Firefox on Kali Linux

Does your Firefox web browser have a large cache of temporary files? Do you have an embarrassing web browsing history? Has it been a while since you last cleared your Firefox cache? If you answered yes to any of the above questions, you've come to the right guide.

In this tutorial, we'll show step by step instructions for clearing the cache in Firefox on a Linux system. You can do this either via GUI or command line. We'll show the instructions for both methods below.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to clear Firefox cache via GUI
  • How to clear Firefox cache via command line

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