Rocky Linux is an upcoming Linux distribution that will be based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux. For other most popular Linux distributions, please visit our dedicated Linux download page.

For many years, CentOS Linux was a reliable, enterprise-ready distribution based on RHEL. In late 2020, Red Hat announced a change of direction for the distro, which would now be named "CentOS Stream" and exist as an upstream vendor.

In response, CentOS founder Gregory Kurtzer launched Rocky Linux, a project that will inherit the original goals of CentOS. Being based on RHEL means that it will only inherit the most tested and stable components that have been introduced upstream in Fedora and CentOS Stream.

Not much is known about the new distro at this time, except that it should function similarly to CentOS (the CentOS before this change) and will most likely be an appropriate replacement for it. You can stay abreast of the latest news by visiting the official Rocky Linux site, as well as Rocky's GitHub. We'll also be updating this article as new information is revealed.

Anyone with a Google account has a free 15 GB of cloud storage in Google Drive. Of course, additional storage is also available for the price of a subscription. The problem for Linux users is that Google has not made an official Google Drive client for Linux.

Other operating systems have an easy time syncing files with Google Drive, either as a backup or just for storage, thanks to Google supplying them with a client application. Linux users are not completely without options, though. In this guide, we're going to cover two different methods for using Google Drive on a Linux system.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to use Google Drive with GNOME
  • How to use Google Drive with KDE
Integrating Google Drive into a Linux system
Integrating Google Drive into a Linux system

Linux inherently works well for coding and testing software. For developers and programmers, almost any Linux distro will be a good fit. When it comes to picking a distro for developing, the biggest factor is just going to be personal preference. Even so, some distros offer certain features that developers may find particularly helpful for their work.

With so many choices available, the task of choosing a distribution can be overwhelming. At the same time, jumping ship to "distro hop" is very easy to do, and shouldn't be discouraged, as it gives you an idea of what else is available. We aim to make your choice a little easier with this guide, where we list our top picks of Linux distros for developers.

Join us as we go over our top eight picks of Linux distros, presented in no particular order. Outside of this list, there are still many other good distros that you can try. And it's important to remember that there is no wrong choice. Let the countdown begin.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • Best Linux distros for developers

Deepin Linux debuted in 2004, albeit under a different name, and has a solid foundation with being based on Debian Linux. For other most popular Linux distributions, please visit our dedicated Linux download page.

All Linux distributions, at least the good ones, were made to fulfill a particular niche. When I was first met with the Deepin installation prompts, which were in Chinese, it became apparent what its niche was. So, how's the Wuhan-developed distro stack up against other Linux distros? Let's go over its main features.

As you should be able to guess, the majority of Deepin's userbase is in China. Interestingly, the Chinese government likes Deepin so much that they commissioned a derivative to be made, which is slated to displace Microsoft Windows in China by 2022. The distro is called Unity Operating System, and it closely resembles Deepin.

Deepin is to UOS like Fedora is to Red Hat Enterprise Linux. In other words, Deepin introduces new features and updates, and after a period of testing, those updates get absorbed into UOS - the commercial Linux distro which will soon be on a massive amount of China's computers.

Although Deepin is based on Debian, the Wuhan developers have replaced a lot of the default staples with their own inventions. The Deepin Desktop Environment was created just for this distribution, and combines a lot of favorites from other systems. For example, it institutes the old "start menu," popularized by Windows. But there's also a quick launch toolbar at the bottom of the desktop, which reminds me of macOS. Of course, you'll see plenty of other conventions sprinkled throughout, inspired by various Linux desktop environments.

It doesn't stop there. Deepin has also created their own music player, movie player, text editor, and a bunch of other applications that are included by default. The system feels intuitive, like a comfy daily driver. The developers certainly did a fine job in making this system approachable by anyone, which must've led to its widespread adoption in China. While poking around, I noticed that Google Chrome could be directly installed via package manager - something that most distros don't support, due to Chrome's closed source nature. When Deepin makes these calls, is it to support user friendliness, or a step away from a FOSS philosophy? You be the judge.

NGINX is one of the most popular web server suites deployed across the internet. It's efficient, versatile, and works well on pretty much any Linux distribution. Whether you need a local server for testing, or want to host a website for the masses, NGINX is easy to set up. It can also be used as a reverse proxy server.

In this guide, we'll be going through the step by step instructions to install NGINX on a variety of Linux distributions. We'll also go over some basic usage commands, like how to start and stop the service. Keep reading to get NGINX setup on your own Linux system.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install NGINX on various Linux distros
  • How to manage the NGINX service
Successful installation page of NGINX on Linux
Successful installation page of NGINX on Linux

Users account management is one of the fundamental task of every Linux system administrator. In this article we will learn how to create a new user account, how to modify it and how to delete it from the command line using the useradd, usermod and userdel utilities, which are part of the base system.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • What is the use of the /etc/login.defs file
  • How to create a user account with various options using the useradd command
  • How to modify a user account using the usermod command
  • How to delete a user account using the userdel command

Regular, when writing a command - both easy and complex ones - one will want to access more detailed information about the command and it’s available options. There is a wealth of information available in the Linux manual pages, and this is provided free of charge, and is available with just a few keystrokes.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to access the manual page for a given command
  • How to access inline help for a given command
  • How to search all manuals for a given search term
  • How to access manual pages for builtin commands
  • How to access the manual using a GUI (graphical user interface)
  • Examples showing various manual usage use cases
How to Access Manual Pages for Linux Commands
How to Access Manual Pages for Linux Commands

Parrot OS is a Linux distribution with a heavy focus on user privacy and penetration testing. It's based on Debian Linux. For other most popular Linux distributions, please visit our dedicated Linux download page.

When people think of penetration testing distributions, usually Kali Linux is the first one that comes to mind. While there's definitely some functional overlap, the two distributions have a lot of differences. First impressions of Parrot make it clear that it's more of a privacy-focused distro than a hacking one.

Parrot inherits a lot of Debian's traits, like using the APT package manager, from which it can install a staggering number of packages that are available in Debian's repos. Parrot also maintains their own repos full of penetration testing and privacy tools.

Parrot makes a point of "staying quiet" by disabling network services by default. This creates a smaller RAM footprint but also helps keep the system hidden if you're on a target network. It also disables auto mounting by default. These extra security measures are nice, but may be frustrating for a novice that wants their system to "just work."

Parrot's passion for privacy becomes immediately apparent when browsing through the default applications that are included with the distro. You'll find the Tor browser already installed, and various Firefox privacy plugins like uBlock Origin, Privacy Badger, and HTTPS Everywhere. It's nice having a distro that works so hard to protect your privacy. This can make it very attractive as a daily driver for some users. You don't need to be a cybersecurity professional or penetration tester to use this distribution, though it can definitely fill those purposes well.

The Snap package manager, known as snapd, is a relatively new feature in the Linux ecosystem. It allows a user to install Snap packages, called Snaps, across a wide range of Linux distributions and versions. This works differently than the traditional method of installing packages via a package manager like APT, where applications are packaged and installed as part of the operating system.

Snaps are self-contained and run in a sandbox, making new software pretty safe to install. The Snaps can be browsed and installed from the Snapcraft App Store. Snap gives developers an easy way to push updates for their applications, as well as usage data to help them improve.

Newer versions of Ubuntu should already have Snap enabled, as Canonical developed the feature and first introduced it on their own distribution. It's also available for most other Linux distributions, but must be installed first.

In this guide, we'll show you how to install the Snap package manager, snapd, on all major Linux systems. We'll also show how to get started with searching the Snap store, and installing or removing Snaps from your system.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to enable Snap package manager on all major Linux distros
  • How to install and uninstall Snap packages (Snaps)
Installing a Snap package on Linux
Installing a Snap package on Linux

CentOS and Fedora are two of the most well known and widespread Linux distributions. They're both based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), which means Fedora and CentOS bear a lot of similarities to their ancestor, but also to each other.

In this guide, we'll be comparing the two distributions across a few key areas and giving a brief review of both distros. Read on to learn more about CentOS and Fedora and how they compare. By the end of this article, you'll be armed with enough information to choose the best distro for your needs.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • CentOS and Fedora background information
  • CentOS and Fedora similarities and differences
  • Which distro should I use, CentOS or Fedora?

Elementary OS is based on Ubuntu and belongs to the Debian family of Linux distributions. For other most popular Linux distributions, please visit our dedicated Linux download page.

Elementary is reminiscent of Linux Mint, an Ubuntu derivative with an extra dose of user friendliness. It's a great distro for those looking to dip their toe into the Linux pool, before moving on to a more robust distro.

The developers of Elementary have taken big strides to ensure a user friendly experience. Elementary includes a custom desktop environment called Pantheon, along with custom apps for Photos, Music, Videos, and all the other essentials. Pantheon has some unique features that can help you keep your desktop clean and increase your workflow, namely multi-tasking views, picture in picture, and do not disturb mode.

The file browser is also unique, with a built in search feature and options to categorize the files and applications. Being part of the Debian family allows new software to be installed in terminal via the APT package manager, but there's also Elementary's AppCenter, which features only the applications that Elementary has approved and certified as privacy-respecting and secure.

Elementary is big on privacy and has a few components to help you monitor the applications on your system. It helps you keep tabs on apps that utilize your microphone or location, so you are notified of misbehaving and untrustworthy software. The operating system also tidies up your cache files automatically to free up space and clear potentially private data.

Arch Linux is often praised for it’s bleeding edge software and rolling release model. We discuss these features more in depth in our article comparing Arch Linux and Manjaro. In addition to this praise, Arch Linux also has a reputation for being unstable. This reputation stems from the sometimes unpredictable nature of bleeding edge software. The latest software from upstream developers may contain bugs that were not apparent during initial testing. As a result, the risk is always present that updating with the package manager, pacman, may bring about unexpected results. These may include a specific piece of software no longer working properly (or at all) or even multiple applications or Desktop Environments no longer working as expected.

Backing up your GNU/Linux system regularly is the best safeguard to mitigate the headache this could cause. There is no shortage of backup solutions for Linux; some of the backup options include dd, BackupPC, rsync, Fsarchiver , rsnapshot. If you have a regular backup solution in place then it can be comforting to know that you could restore from a backup in the event that a pacman update caused issues, but it would be ideal if you didn’t have to. In this article we will show you how to roll back pacman updates in Arch Linux. There are two ways to accomplish this. One way is via the pacman cache; the other is by using the Arch Linux Archive. We will discuss both methods.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to rollback Arch Linux updates using the pacman cache
  • How to rollback Arch Linux updates using the Arch Linux Archive

The SSH (Secure Shell) protocol provides the ability to perform encrypted communications over computer networks. Typical operations we can perform using the protocol are remote login and remote command executions. When we login on a remote computer (with the ssh utility, for example), we are requested to provide the password for the account we are using to login. For enhanced security we can decide to use SSH keys as credentials: once the SSH server is configured appropriately, to be able to login we must know something (the password) but also possess something (a key). In this tutorial we see how to generate, manage and use SSH keys.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • What is a SSH keypair
  • What is the difference between a private and public ssh key and what is their role
  • How to generate SSH keypairs
  • How to modify the password of a private ssh key
  • How to transfer public keys to an ssh server

MX Linux is based on Debian's "stable" branch. It's a conjoined effort between the antiX and now-defunct MEPIS Linux distro communities. For other most popular Linux distributions, please visit our dedicated Linux download page.

MX naturally bears some resemblance to Debian and antiX Linux distributions, but includes enough unique features to be markedly different. It brands itself as a "midweight" operating system, meaning it may not be the most ideal distro for old systems, but you certainly don't need a high end PC to run it.

You have two different GUI choices when downloading MX, although more can be easily installed. One is KDE, but the flagship download is Xfce with Fluxbox. Keep in mind that this isn't the usual Fluxbox window manager - MX has made their own changes to make it integrate smoothly with the operating system. Newcomers are presented with a lightning fast, minimalistic user interface that focuses on staying out of your way.

MX doesn't include a lot of software out of the box, giving it a small footprint when compared to its ancestor or other Debian-based distros like Ubuntu. New tools are easy to install from the MX Package Installer application or APT package manager.

When using the Apache web server, .htaccess files (also called “distributed configuration files”) are used to specify configuration on a per-directory basis, or more generally to modify the behavior of the Apache web server without having to access virtual hosts files directly (this is usually impossible for example, on shared hosts). In this tutorial we see how we can establish URL redirections and rewriting rules inside .htaccess files.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How .htaccess files work
  • How to setup URL rewriting rules in .htaccess files using the RewriteRule directive
  • How to setup URL redirection rules in .htaccess files using the Redirect and RedirectMatch directives

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