NGINX is popular web hosting and reverse proxy software for Linux systems. Like many other applications and services, it occasionally needs restarted. Restarting is especially common when making updates to configuration files. You'll always need to restart or reload NGINX for the changes to take effect.

In this article, we'll go over a couple different command line options for restarting and reloading an NGINX server. In addition, you'll learn how to check the NGINX configuration file for mistakes before restarting NGINX. After all, you wouldn't want to load up a configuration that contains errors.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to reload NGINX (no effect on client connections)
  • How to completely restart NGINX

Compressed files with the .zip extension are commonplace throughout Windows systems, as it's been the native file compression method for the operating system since many years ago. On a Linux system, the nearest equivalent would have to be tar files and various methods of compression like gzip.

There are a few reasons why you may need to create or open .zip files on Linux. When sharing files with a Windows user, it'd definitely be better to send them a .zip file than a file with Linux based compression, and you may come across an occasional zip archive online or from a friend that you need to open.

In this guide, we'll show you how to use zip on Linux to open or create compressed .zip archives on both the command line and GUI.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to use zip and unzip via command line
  • How to use zip and unzip via GUI

If you need to find a certain directory on your Linux system, we've got just the guide for you. In this tutorial, we'll be going through the step by step instructions to locate a folder on Linux via both the command line and GUI.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • Find a directory via command line
  • Find a directory via GUI

In this guide, our goal is to learn about the tools and environment provided by a typical GNU/Linux system to be able to start troubleshooting even on an unknown machine. To do so, we will go through two simple example issues: we will solve a desktop and server side problem.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to check disk space
  • How to check memory size
  • How to check system load
  • How to find and kill system processes
  • How to user logs to find relevant system troubleshooting information

There are many reasons why you may want to create compressed encrypted file archives. You may want to create an encrypted backup of your personal files. Another possible scenario is that you may want to privately share content with a friend or colleague over the web or through cloud storage. Tar.gz files, or compressed tarballs, are created using the tar command. These tarballs are pretty much the standard go-to format for archives on GNU/Linux, however they are not encrypted. In the above scenarios that we mentioned it is often desirable to have encryption in order to secure your data. This is where gpg comes in.

gpg is a very versatile cryptographic tool which allows you to encrypt files , encrypt e-mail, and verify the integrity of signed files.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • to create compressed archives using tar
  • to create encrypted compressed archives by using tar with gpg in a pipeline
  • to create multiple individual encrypted archives of directories
  • a quick dirty method for copying these archives over a network by adding netcat to the pipeline

Grub is a boot loader for many Linux distributions which basically tells your system where it can find installed operating system(s) on one or more hard drives. Your PC needs this information in order to boot into your Linux distro successfully. If grub becomes corrupted, one such error you may come across is "error: no such partition grub rescue."

This error most commonly arises when resizing or rearranging the partitions of a hard drive, as is necessary with dual boot in Ubuntu or dual boot in Manjaro, for example. If you've received this error out of the blue (i.e. you haven't made any recent changes to your hard drive), it could be a sign of the hard drive going bad.

Regardless of the cause, we've written this guide to help you get your Linux system back up and running. In this article, we'll give you the step by step instructions to fix the dreaded "no such partition" grub error.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to fix grub error: no such partition grub rescue

In previous articles, we already talked about how we can perform local and remote backups using rsync and how to setup the rsync daemon. In this tutorial we will learn a very useful technique we can use to perform incremental backups, and schedule them using the good old cron.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • The difference between hard and symbolic links
  • What is an incremental backup
  • How the rsync –link-dest option works
  • How to create incremental backups using rsync
  • How to schedule backups using cron

Systemd is nowadays the init system adopted by almost all Linux distributions, from Red Hat Enterprise Linux to Debian and Ubuntu. One of the things that made Systemd the target of a lot of critics is that it tries to be a lot more than a simple init system and tries to re-invent some Linux subsystems.

The traditional logging system used on Linux, for example was rsyslog, a modern version of the traditional syslog. Systemd introduced its own logging system: it is implemented by a daemon, journald, which stores logs in binary format into a “journal”, which can be queried by the journalctl utility.

In this tutorial we will learn some parameters we can use to modify the journald daemon behavior, and some examples of how to query the journal and format the output resulting from said queries.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to change default journald settings
  • How journald can coexist with syslog
  • How to query the journal and some ways to format the queries output

There are times when it’s useful to inspect what a running application is doing under the hood, and what system calls it is performing during its execution. To accomplish such a task on Linux, we can use the strace utility. In this article we will see how to install it and we will learn its basic usage.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install strace
  • How to use strace to trace system calls made by a process
  • How to filter specifics system calls
  • How to attach to an already running process
  • How to generate a system call summary

In this guide, we go through the steps to format an SD or USB disk in Linux. This can be done via GUI or command line, and we'll cover the process for both. The guide will be applicable regardless of what Linux distribution you've decided to use, especially the command line method.

This will wipe all the data from your USB or SD disk and get it ready for use under Linux or another system. It's also used to clear the device before creating a bootable live USB drive.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to format an SD or USB disk via GUI
  • How to format an SD or USB disk via command line

Manjaro is an up and coming Linux distribution that has recently overtaken some of the most popular and battle scarred distributions like Ubuntu, Fedora, Mint, and others (at least according to DistroWatch).

Once you've decided to download Manjaro and see what all the rage is about, we've got you covered in this beginner's guide, which will provide you with an introduction to the operating system and show you the first things to do once you've booted into Manjaro. If you're just looking to give Manjaro a test run, you can always install Manjaro in a virtual machine or create a dual boot system.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • Background information of Manjaro
  • How to install Manjaro
  • How to update Manjaro
  • How to install additional software on Manjaro
  • How to perform basic administration tasks on Manjaro
  • How to setup computer peripherals in Manjaro

Netcat is a versatile networking utility which can be used for reading from and writing to TCP and UDP connections on arbitrary ports (as with other utilities used on Linux, ports below 1024 require root/sudo privileges). By default netcat uses TCP connections, but UDP can be specified with the -u flag. Netcat can be used as both a server and a client. When used as a server the -l flag is used to listen for a connection. Similar to the cat command, netcat can receive information from stdin and write to stdout making it great for workflows involving pipes and redirects. The nc command is typically used to evoke netcat for ease of use.

In this tutorial you will learn how to do the following with netcat:

  • make an HTTP request to grab a webpage
  • chat with friends across machines
  • copy files between machines
  • perform port scanning
  • view messages from netcat in a web-browser
  • create and connect to a reverse shell
Tips & Tricks with Netcat command on Linux
Tips & Tricks with Netcat command on Linux

Many developers and programmers choose Manjaro because it's one of the most user-friendly and feature-rich Linux distributions. In this guide, we go over the steps to install the Java Development Kit on Manjaro Linux. We'll show you how to install both the OpenJDK package (which is free and GPL-licensed) as well as Oracle Java SE Development Kit.

Arch Linux and Manjaro only officially support the OpenJDK, as that is the non-proprietary version. However, the Oracle package can be installed from the AUR, as you'll see shortly.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install OpenJDK
  • How to install Oracle Java SE Development Kit
  • How to test Java installation

Printing in Manjaro and the majority of other Linux distributions is handled through the CUPS system. After installing Manjaro Linux, setting up a printer is one of the first tasks that many users will need to tackle.

In this guide, we will guide you through the process of setting up a printer on Manjaro Linux. CUPS makes the process a lot more painless than many other alternative methods, so that's what we'll be using.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install and enable printer software (CUPS)
  • How to configure printer automatically with HP Device Manager or CUPS
  • How to manually setup a printer
  • How to access print jobs, printers, and CUPS documentation

Installing Manjaro inside a VirtualBox virtual machine is a great way to give the operating system a test run or to install some Linux software that you don't want to run on your main system. If you're a Windows user, this is also a convenient way to stick a toe in the water with Linux, with the other option being to dual boot Windows 10 and Manjaro.

Manjaro is a user friendly Linux distribution with a lot of features to offer. In this tutorial, we'll guide you through the installation of Manjaro on a virtual machine and show you the best configuration options to get the most out of the VM.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install Manjaro in a VirtualBox virtual machine
  • Optimal settings for a Manjaro VM

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