The SSH (Secure Shell) protocol provides the ability to perform encrypted communications over computer networks. Typical operations we can perform using the protocol are remote login and remote command executions. When we login on a remote computer (with the ssh utility, for example), we are requested to provide the password for the account we are using to login. For enhanced security we can decide to use SSH keys as credentials: once the SSH server is configured appropriately, to be able to login we must know something (the password) but also possess something (a key). In this tutorial we see how to generate, manage and use SSH keys.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • What is a SSH keypair
  • What is the difference between a private and public ssh key and what is their role
  • How to generate SSH keypairs
  • How to modify the password of a private ssh key
  • How to transfer public keys to an ssh server

MX Linux is based on Debian's "stable" branch. It's a conjoined effort between the antiX and now-defunct MEPIS Linux distro communities. For other most popular Linux distributions, please visit our dedicated Linux download page.

MX naturally bears some resemblance to Debian and antiX Linux distributions, but includes enough unique features to be markedly different. It brands itself as a "midweight" operating system, meaning it may not be the most ideal distro for old systems, but you certainly don't need a high end PC to run it.

You have two different GUI choices when downloading MX, although more can be easily installed. One is KDE, but the flagship download is Xfce with Fluxbox. Keep in mind that this isn't the usual Fluxbox window manager - MX has made their own changes to make it integrate smoothly with the operating system. Newcomers are presented with a lightning fast, minimalistic user interface that focuses on staying out of your way.

MX doesn't include a lot of software out of the box, giving it a small footprint when compared to its ancestor or other Debian-based distros like Ubuntu. New tools are easy to install from the MX Package Installer application or APT package manager.

When using the Apache web server, .htaccess files (also called “distributed configuration files”) are used to specify configuration on a per-directory basis, or more generally to modify the behavior of the Apache web server without having to access virtual hosts files directly (this is usually impossible for example, on shared hosts). In this tutorial we see how we can establish URL redirections and rewriting rules inside .htaccess files.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How .htaccess files work
  • How to setup URL rewriting rules in .htaccess files using the RewriteRule directive
  • How to setup URL redirection rules in .htaccess files using the Redirect and RedirectMatch directives

Opera is a web browser based on the Chromium project. While not as popular as Mozilla Firefox or Google Chrome, it has been around a lot longer than both of them and offers a great web browsing experience with its sleek user interface.

Although it's based on an open source project, Opera developers include their own closed source and proprietary additions in the final package. This is frowned upon in the Linux world, which means that Opera is almost never the default browser on a Linux distribution. Furthermore, it may not be included in official repositories, so it can't even be installed (by default) with a distro's package manager.

Despite this, it's not hard to install Opera on a Linux system. You just need to follow a couple extra steps. In this guide, we'll show you the step by step instructions for installing the Opera web browser an all popular Linux distributions.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install Opera on Debian, Red Hat, and Arch Linux based systems

Chromium is an open source browser maintained by Google. Along with the Chromium browser itself, Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge, Opera, Vivaldi, and a slew of other notable web browsers are all based on the Chromium source code. It's safe to say that Chromium plays a huge role in the way that many users view the web today.

Despite Chromium's influence, it's far more common to see Mozilla Firefox as the default web browser on Linux systems. Chromium is still the default browser on some systems and is almost always able to be installed directly from a distro's package manager. Contrast this to a browser like Google Chrome, whose closed source precludes it from being as easily installed on Linux.

While Chromium is a fully functional browser on its own, it's missing support for propriety codecs like H.264 and AAC. At the cost of minor inconveniences like this, you'll be getting a open source, Chrome-like browser. We dive more into this topic in our Firefox vs. Chrome/Chromium guide.

In this guide, we'll see how to install Chromium on all major Linux distributions.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to install Chromium on Debian, Red Hat, and Arch Linux based systems

When browsing the web, your computer can communicate with websites through two different protocols: HTTP and HTTPS. HTTPS is the safer version of HTTP, with the "S" standing for "secure." Whether a website is configured to communicate with its users securely or not is up to the site administrator.

On certain websites, you may notice Mozilla Firefox or another modern browser indicating that "your connection is not secure." This basically means that the website is using HTTP instead of HTTPS. Whether a site is using HTTP or HTTPS will always be indicated by the padlock symbol next to the URL of a site.

In this guide, we'll go over this security warning, talk about the seriousness of it, and give some tips for how you can protect yourself when browsing the web with Firefox on a Linux system.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • Why are some sites still using HTTP?
  • Why is it important for sites to use HTTPS?
  • What can I do to protect myself when browsing a site with HTTP?

The "bleeding edge" is a term used to describe brand new software that's not guaranteed to be stable. It remains largely untested, but comprises all the latest features that will be deployed to the masses after further experimenting. Kali Linux, by virtue of being based on Debian's testing branch, already sits pretty close to the edge.

You can configure your Kali system to download even newer software packages by adding Kali's bleeding edge repo to APT package manager. This is ideal for users that want access to the newest software and features and don't need their system to be ultra stable.

In this guide, we'll show you the step by step instructions for configuring the bleeding edge repo on Kali Linux, as well as the Debian unstable and experimental repositories.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to add bleeding edge repo to Kali
  • How to add Debian unstable and experimental repos to Kali

Mozilla Firefox comes installed by default on Kali Linux and a ton of other Linux distributions. It's a solid web browser but it's the user's responsibility to make sure Firefox stays up to date.

The process for updating Firefox is a little different on Kali. Kali is based on Debian's testing branch, which uses Firefox ESR (Extended Support Release).

Firefox ESR is essentially a more stable version of Firefox which is geared mainly towards enterprise systems. It usually doesn't have all the latest features that are available in other Firefox installs, but includes the most stable and thoroughly tested components.

In this guide, we'll see how to update Firefox ESR from the command line on Kali Linux.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to update Firefox on Kali Linux

Does your Firefox web browser have a large cache of temporary files? Do you have an embarrassing web browsing history? Has it been a while since you last cleared your Firefox cache? If you answered yes to any of the above questions, you've come to the right guide.

In this tutorial, we'll show step by step instructions for clearing the cache in Firefox on a Linux system. You can do this either via GUI or command line. We'll show the instructions for both methods below.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to clear Firefox cache via GUI
  • How to clear Firefox cache via command line

Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) are well-known Linux distributions, often used in the business world. Each distro has their own pros and cons, differences, and similarities to the other.

In this guide, we'll be comparing the two distributions across a few key areas and giving a brief review of both distros. Read on to learn more about Oracle Linux and RHEL and how they compare. By the end of this article, you'll be armed with enough information to choose the best distro for your needs.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • Oracle Linux and RHEL background information
  • Oracle Linux and RHEL similarities and differences
  • Which distro should I use, Oracle Linux or RHEL?

Pinging network devices from a Linux system is a really common troubleshooting step for testing your internet connection or the connection to a particular device. If you've spent any time at all tinkering with computers and especially the Linux command line, you're probably a little familiar with the ping command already.

What you may not be so familiar with is IPv6 addresses. IPv6 is intended to replace the IPv4 network address standard - an ongoing process that's been years in the making. And although IPv4 shows no sign of going away right now, IPv6 network addresses are becoming more prevalent.

In this guide, we'll show you how to ping an IPv6 address from a Linux system. This is one of the most fundamental troubleshooting steps, and it's changing a little as the new standard becomes widespread. Various Linux distributions may treat the addresses differently, so let's take a look at how we can ping IPv6 addresses from some of the most popular distros.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to ping an IPv6 address on Linux
How to ping an IPv6 address from Linux
How to ping an IPv6 address from Linux

Pop!_OS and Ubuntu are both popular Linux distributions, each of which has their pros and cons, differences, and similarities to the other.

In this guide, we'll be comparing the two distributions across a few key areas and giving a brief review of both distros. Read on to learn more about Pop!_OS and Ubuntu, and how they compare. By the end of this article, you'll be armed with enough information to choose the best distro for your needs.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • Pop!_OS and Ubuntu background information
  • Pop!_OS and Ubuntu similarities and differences
  • Which distro should I use, Pop!_OS or Ubuntu?

Pop!_OS is based on Ubuntu and belongs to the Debian family of Linux distributions. For other most popular Linux distributions, please visit our dedicated Linux download page.

System76, the developers of POP!_OS, have made some modifications to Ubuntu in order to gear the operating system towards STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) and creative professionals. This is a good distro to use for getting lots of work done.

Pop!_OS runs a modified GNOME desktop environment, which has been streamlined to help users manage their workflow. A full list of unique conveniences are compiled on the official website, but include workspaces, keyboard shortcuts, and window stacking. After working with it for a few minutes, you'll find windows and applications very easy to manage and run simultaneously.

Another unique feature of Pop!_OS is that it provides full disk encryption out of the box. New tools are easy to install from the Pop Shop or APT package manager, with some precompiled development toolkits available for fields like deep learning, engineering, media production, and bioinformatics.

IPv6, the newest network address standard for the whole internet, is becoming more widespread and will eventually replace IPv4 entirely. Sooner or later, network admins and computer hobbyists alike will find themselves interacting with IPv6 network addresses.

Simple tasks like using SSH to control a remote system will now change a little, so it's important to relearn a few of the basics. In this guide, we'll show how to SSH to an IPv6 address on a Linux system. These methods will work with all the most popular Linux distributions.

In this tutorial you will learn:
  • How to SSH to an IPv6 address on Linux
How to SSH to an IPv6 address from Linux
How to SSH to an IPv6 address from Linux

How about if you could have a multi-window terminal where, at will, you could press a key and it would be immediately copied to all (or a selection of) windows? How about if you could fit all terminal windows in one big window, without big and bulky borders loosing “precious” screen real estate? These, and more, are basic features of terminator, the handy Linux terminal utility.

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