How to setup an FTP/SFTP server on AlmaLinux

How to setup FTP/SFTP server and client on AlmaLinux

FTP and SFTP are great protocols for downloading files from a remote or local server, or uploading files onto the server. FTP will suffice for some situations, but for connections over the internet, SFTP is recommended. In other words, FTP is not secure to use over an internet connection, since your credentials and data are transmitted without encryption. The ‘S’ in SFTP stands for ‘Secure’ and tunnels the FTP protocol through SSH, providing the encryption needed to establish a secure connection.

In this guide, we’ll go over the step by step instructions to setup an FTP server through VSFTP software or SFTP server through OpenSSH on AlmaLinux. Then, we’ll see how to connect to the server from a client AlmaLinux system. Setting up FTP/SFTP is a common step after installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to setup an FTP server through VSFTPD
  • How to setup an SFTP server through OpenSSH
  • How to setup FTP and SFTP user accounts
  • How to allow FTP and SFTP through firewalld
  • How to connect to an FTP/SFTP server via command line
  • How to connect to an FTP/SFTP server via GNOME GUI
How to setup an FTP/SFTP server on AlmaLinux

How to setup an FTP/SFTP server on AlmaLinux

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Setting up a Samba share on AlmaLinux

How to setup Samba Server and client on AlmaLinux

File servers often need to accommodate a variety of different client systems. Running Samba allows Windows systems to connect and access files, as well as other Linux systems and MacOS. An alternative solution would be to run an FTP/SFTP server, which can also support the connections from many systems.

In this guide, we’ll go over the instructions to setup a Samba server on AlmaLinux. This is a great way to prepare your file server after installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux. We’ll also see how to connect to the file server from other AlmaLinux client computers.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install Samba on AlmaLinux
  • How to allow Samba through firewalld
  • How to create a Samba user
  • How to configure Samba to share a directory
  • How to allow Samba through SELinux
  • How to connect to Samba server from AlmaLinux client
Setting up a Samba share on AlmaLinux

Setting up a Samba share on AlmaLinux

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The chrony NTP server source list on AlmaLinux

How to configure NTP server and client on AlmaLinux

NTP stands for Network Time Protocol and is used for clock synchronization across multiple computers. An NTP server is responsible for keeping a set of computers in sync with each other. On a local network, the server should be able to keep all client systems to within a single millisecond of each other.

Such a configuration would be necessary if, for example, the systems needed to start or stop a task in unison at a precise time. In this article, we’ll show you how to configure an NTP server on AlmaLinux and how to configure a client system to sync its system time with said server. This can be done from a fresh AlmaLinux installation or on a system that has migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install and configure chrony NTP server
  • How to open firewall to incoming NTP requests
  • How to connect to an NTP server from a client machine
The chrony NTP server source list on AlmaLinux

The chrony NTP server source list on AlmaLinux

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Setting up a MySQL database and user on AlmaLinux

How to install MySQL on AlmaLinux

In this guide, we will show you how to install MySQL on AlmaLinux. There are two separate packages for this on AlmaLinux, depending on what you need to do. You can either install the MySQL client package, which is used to connect to MySQL servers, or install the MySQL server software, which can be used to host your own databases. We’ll cover both below.

After installing a MySQL server, we’ll also go over the first steps you’ll need to get started with hosting a database, which includes making a username and password, creating a database, and granting user permissions on that database. AlmaLinux is a good Linux distro for hosting MySQL, whether you’ve freshly installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • Install MySQL Client on AlmaLinux
  • Install MySQL Server on AlmaLinux
  • How to setup a MySQL database
Setting up a MySQL database and user on AlmaLinux

Setting up a MySQL database and user on AlmaLinux

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LEMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux

How to install LEMP stack on AlmaLinux

A LEMP stack is an assortment of software that contains everything you need in order to serve a website, show dynamic content, and store or retrieve data from a database. The software is all within the LEMP acronym, namely the Linux operating system, NGINX web server, MySQL database (or MariaDB alternatively), and PHP programming language.

If you’ve installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux, then you already have the first requirement done. Next, you just need to get your LEMP stack up and running. In this guide, we’ll show the step by step instructions to install a LEMP stack on AlmaLinux.

Note that it’s also possible to install a LAMP stack on AlmaLinux, which is very similar to LEMP except that it contains Apache as the web server instead of NGINX.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install all LEMP prerequisite packages on AlmaLinux
  • How to secure MariaDB database
  • How to start NGINX and MariaDB services
  • How to open HTTP and HTTPS firewall ports
LEMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux

LEMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux

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Setting the date and time on AlmaLinux

How to set date and time on AlmaLinux

The objective of this guide is to show how to set the system date and time on AlmaLinux. This can be done from both GUI and command line, so we’ll be covering both methods in the following instructions.

Setting your system date, time, and time zone is usually done when initially installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux. If you skipped that step during installation, have switched time zones, or your system clock has drifted out of sync, we’ll help you get it fixed.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to set date and time on AlmaLinux from GNOME GUI
  • How to set date and time on AlmaLinux from command line
Setting the date and time on AlmaLinux

Setting the date and time on AlmaLinux

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Installing Git on AlmaLinux

How to install Git on AlmaLinux

Git is a versioning control system, mainly used by programmers to issue changes to applications and keep track of the revisions. However, it’s also commonly used by everyday users, since they’re able to browse and download the source code and binaries of millions of applications from websites like GitHub and GitLab.

On Linux, familiarity with Git and access to the command line utility is borderline essential. That is, if you’re the type of user who likes to install programs to unlock additional features and the like.

In this guide, we’ll show you the step by step instructions to install Git on AlmaLinux. Once it’s installed, you can read our other guide on how to get started using Git. This is a great process to do right after installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install Git on AlmaLinux
Installing Git on AlmaLinux

Installing Git on AlmaLinux

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Installing Apache on AlmaLinux

How to install Apache on AlmaLinux

Apache is one of the most popular and longstanding HTTP servers. It’s an open-source and cross-platform web server software developed and maintained by Apache Software Foundation. It’s easy to set up and learn to use, which has led to its widespread adoption for small and large scale websites.

In this guide, we’ll go over the step by step instructions to install Apache on AlmaLinux. Feel free to follow along with us, whether you have a fresh AlmaLinux installation or have migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install Apache web server on AlmaLinux
  • How to control Apache web server with systemctl commands
  • How to open firewall for HTTP (port 80) and HTTPS (port 443)
  • How to host a website with Apache
  • How to install SSL certificate with Let’s Encrypt
Installing Apache on AlmaLinux

Installing Apache on AlmaLinux

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LAMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux

How to install LAMP stack on AlmaLinux

A LAMP stack is an assortment of software that contains everything you need in order to serve a website, show dynamic content, and store or retrieve data from a database. The software is all within the LAMP acronym, namely the Linux operating system, Apache web server, MySQL database (or MariaDB alternatively), and PHP programming language.

If you’ve installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux, then you already have the first requirement done. Next, you just need to get your LAMP stack up and running. In this guide, we’ll show the step by step instructions to install a LAMP stack on AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install all LAMP prerequisite packages on AlmaLinux
  • How to secure MariaDB database
  • How to start httpd and MariaDB services
  • How to open HTTP and HTTPS firewall ports
LAMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux

LAMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux

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Disabling SELinux on AlmaLinux

How to disable SELinux on AlmaLinux

SELinux, which stands for Security Enhanced Linux, is an extra layer of security control built into Red Hat Enterprise Linux and its derivative Linux distributions, such as AlmaLinux. SELinux is enabled by default on the system, and would have to be manually disabled if a user doesn’t wish to use it.

Although SELinux can protect our system through access control for programs and system services, it’s not always necessary to have it enabled. Some users may even find that it interferes with certain programs they try to install. In this guide, we’ll go over the step by step instructions to disable SELinux on AlmaLinux, whether you’ve freshly installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to check the status of SELinux
  • How to put SELinux in permissive mode
  • How to disable SELinux
Disabling SELinux on AlmaLinux

Disabling SELinux on AlmaLinux

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Allowing a port through the firewall on AlmaLinux

How to allow port through firewall on AlmaLinux

firewalld is the default firewall program that comes pre-installed on Red Hat Enterprise Linux and its derivative Linux distributions, such as AlmaLinux.

By default, the firewall is turned on, meaning that a very limited number of services are able to receive incoming traffic. This is a nice security feature, but it means that the user must be knowledgeable enough to configure the firewall whenever they install a new service on the system, like HTTPD or SSH for example. Otherwise, connections from the internet can’t reach these services.

Rather than disabling the firewall on AlmaLinux entirely, we can allow certain ports through the firewall, which lets incoming connections reach our services. In this guide, we’ll see how to allow a port through the firewall on AlmaLinux. Feel free to follow along whether you’ve freshly installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to allow a port or service through the firewall on AlmaLinux
  • How to reload the firewall for changes to take effect
  • How to check what ports and services are open in the firewall
  • How to close a port after having it configured as open
  • Command examples for allowing the most common ports through firewall
Allowing a port through the firewall on AlmaLinux

Allowing a port through the firewall on AlmaLinux

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Adding a new static route in AlmaLinux

How to add route on AlmaLinux

By default, when a Linux system tries to communicate with a network address, the computer will send the request to the default gateway. The default gateway is usually a router, which can take the system’s request and forward it to the next hop, wherever that may be.

This behavior can be overridden by adding one or more static routes to the Linux machine. Such a configuration can be desirable if the network has multiple networks and routers, and a user needs to instruct the computer which way to route certain traffic.

Red Hat based distributions, such as AlmaLinux, can use the nmcli command line utility to configure static routes, along with the ip route command and manual configuration of ifcfg files. Alternatively, you can use your installed desktop environment to apply the configuration. In this guide, we’ll go over the step by step instructions to add static routes on AlmaLinux through both command line and GUI methods. These instructions are applicable whether you’ve freshly installed AlmaLinux or have migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to add a route via nmcli command
  • How to add a route via ip route command
  • How to add a route via ifcfg files
  • How to add a route via GNOME GUI
Adding a new static route in AlmaLinux

Adding a new static route in AlmaLinux

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