LEMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux

How to install LEMP stack on AlmaLinux

A LEMP stack is an assortment of software that contains everything you need in order to serve a website, show dynamic content, and store or retrieve data from a database. The software is all within the LEMP acronym, namely the Linux operating system, NGINX web server, MySQL database (or MariaDB alternatively), and PHP programming language.

If you’ve installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux, then you already have the first requirement done. Next, you just need to get your LEMP stack up and running. In this guide, we’ll show the step by step instructions to install a LEMP stack on AlmaLinux.

Note that it’s also possible to install a LAMP stack on AlmaLinux, which is very similar to LEMP except that it contains Apache as the web server instead of NGINX.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install all LEMP prerequisite packages on AlmaLinux
  • How to secure MariaDB database
  • How to start NGINX and MariaDB services
  • How to open HTTP and HTTPS firewall ports
LEMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux

LEMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux

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Setting the date and time on AlmaLinux

How to set date and time on AlmaLinux

The objective of this guide is to show how to set the system date and time on AlmaLinux. This can be done from both GUI and command line, so we’ll be covering both methods in the following instructions.

Setting your system date, time, and time zone is usually done when initially installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux. If you skipped that step during installation, have switched time zones, or your system clock has drifted out of sync, we’ll help you get it fixed.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to set date and time on AlmaLinux from GNOME GUI
  • How to set date and time on AlmaLinux from command line
Setting the date and time on AlmaLinux

Setting the date and time on AlmaLinux

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Installing Git on AlmaLinux

How to install Git on AlmaLinux

Git is a versioning control system, mainly used by programmers to issue changes to applications and keep track of the revisions. However, it’s also commonly used by everyday users, since they’re able to browse and download the source code and binaries of millions of applications from websites like GitHub and GitLab.

On Linux, familiarity with Git and access to the command line utility is borderline essential. That is, if you’re the type of user who likes to install programs to unlock additional features and the like.

In this guide, we’ll show you the step by step instructions to install Git on AlmaLinux. Once it’s installed, you can read our other guide on how to get started using Git. This is a great process to do right after installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install Git on AlmaLinux
Installing Git on AlmaLinux

Installing Git on AlmaLinux

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Installing Apache on AlmaLinux

How to install Apache on AlmaLinux

Apache is one of the most popular and longstanding HTTP servers. It’s an open-source and cross-platform web server software developed and maintained by Apache Software Foundation. It’s easy to set up and learn to use, which has led to its widespread adoption for small and large scale websites.

In this guide, we’ll go over the step by step instructions to install Apache on AlmaLinux. Feel free to follow along with us, whether you have a fresh AlmaLinux installation or have migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install Apache web server on AlmaLinux
  • How to control Apache web server with systemctl commands
  • How to open firewall for HTTP (port 80) and HTTPS (port 443)
  • How to host a website with Apache
  • How to install SSL certificate with Let’s Encrypt
Installing Apache on AlmaLinux

Installing Apache on AlmaLinux

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LAMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux

How to install LAMP stack on AlmaLinux

A LAMP stack is an assortment of software that contains everything you need in order to serve a website, show dynamic content, and store or retrieve data from a database. The software is all within the LAMP acronym, namely the Linux operating system, Apache web server, MySQL database (or MariaDB alternatively), and PHP programming language.

If you’ve installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux, then you already have the first requirement done. Next, you just need to get your LAMP stack up and running. In this guide, we’ll show the step by step instructions to install a LAMP stack on AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install all LAMP prerequisite packages on AlmaLinux
  • How to secure MariaDB database
  • How to start httpd and MariaDB services
  • How to open HTTP and HTTPS firewall ports
LAMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux

LAMP stack running successfully on AlmaLinux

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Allowing a port through the firewall on AlmaLinux

How to allow port through firewall on AlmaLinux

firewalld is the default firewall program that comes pre-installed on Red Hat Enterprise Linux and its derivative Linux distributions, such as AlmaLinux.

By default, the firewall is turned on, meaning that a very limited number of services are able to receive incoming traffic. This is a nice security feature, but it means that the user must be knowledgeable enough to configure the firewall whenever they install a new service on the system, like HTTPD or SSH for example. Otherwise, connections from the internet can’t reach these services.

Rather than disabling the firewall on AlmaLinux entirely, we can allow certain ports through the firewall, which lets incoming connections reach our services. In this guide, we’ll see how to allow a port through the firewall on AlmaLinux. Feel free to follow along whether you’ve freshly installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to allow a port or service through the firewall on AlmaLinux
  • How to reload the firewall for changes to take effect
  • How to check what ports and services are open in the firewall
  • How to close a port after having it configured as open
  • Command examples for allowing the most common ports through firewall
Allowing a port through the firewall on AlmaLinux

Allowing a port through the firewall on AlmaLinux

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Adding a new static route in AlmaLinux

How to add route on AlmaLinux

By default, when a Linux system tries to communicate with a network address, the computer will send the request to the default gateway. The default gateway is usually a router, which can take the system’s request and forward it to the next hop, wherever that may be.

This behavior can be overridden by adding one or more static routes to the Linux machine. Such a configuration can be desirable if the network has multiple networks and routers, and a user needs to instruct the computer which way to route certain traffic.

Red Hat based distributions, such as AlmaLinux, can use the nmcli command line utility to configure static routes, along with the ip route command and manual configuration of ifcfg files. Alternatively, you can use your installed desktop environment to apply the configuration. In this guide, we’ll go over the step by step instructions to add static routes on AlmaLinux through both command line and GUI methods. These instructions are applicable whether you’ve freshly installed AlmaLinux or have migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to add a route via nmcli command
  • How to add a route via ip route command
  • How to add a route via ifcfg files
  • How to add a route via GNOME GUI
Adding a new static route in AlmaLinux

Adding a new static route in AlmaLinux

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Resetting a user password on AlmaLinux

How to reset password on AlmaLinux

After installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux, most users will eventually run into the need to do some user account management, such as adding a new user account or resetting a password.

If you or one of the other users of an AlmaLinux system forgets the password to their account, there’s a simple way to reset the password from either command line or GUI. The same steps can also apply if it’s simply time to change your password or you want to force another user’s password to expire and change.

There are several scenarios that you might encounter that cause you to reset your password.

  1. You need to change a normal user or the root account’s password
  2. You want to force a user to change their password
  3. You have forgotten the root account password

In this guide, we’ll be covering the step by step instructions for problems 1 and 2 mentioned above. If you need help resetting your system’s root password, see our other guide for recovering a root password on RHEL.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to change user or root password via command line
  • How to change user password via GNOME GUI
  • How to force a user’s password to expire and be reset
Resetting a user password on AlmaLinux

Resetting a user password on AlmaLinux

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SSH server enabled and running on AlmaLinux

How to enable SSH on Almalinux

SSH is the primary method of remote access and administration on Linux systems. SSH is a client-server service providing secure, encrypted connections over a network connection. After installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux, it will probably be one of the first things you want to configure.

In this guide, we’ll go over the step by step instructions to install and configure SSH on AlmaLinux. This will help you whether you just want to connect to remote systems via SSH or you want your own system to accept incoming connections as well.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to install SSH
  • How to start and stop the SSH service
  • How to allow SSH through system firewall
SSH server enabled and running on AlmaLinux

SSH server enabled and running on AlmaLinux

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Disabling SELinux on AlmaLinux

How to disable SELinux on AlmaLinux

SELinux, which stands for Security Enhanced Linux, is an extra layer of security control built into Red Hat Enterprise Linux and its derivative Linux distributions, such as AlmaLinux. SELinux is enabled by default on the system, and would have to be manually disabled if a user doesn’t wish to use it.

Although SELinux can protect our system through access control for programs and system services, it’s not always necessary to have it enabled. Some users may even find that it interferes with certain programs they try to install. In this guide, we’ll go over the step by step instructions to disable SELinux on AlmaLinux, whether you’ve freshly installed AlmaLinux or migrated from CentOS to AlmaLinux.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to check the status of SELinux
  • How to put SELinux in permissive mode
  • How to disable SELinux
Disabling SELinux on AlmaLinux

Disabling SELinux on AlmaLinux

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Adding a new user account on AlmaLinux

How to add user on AlmaLinux

After installing AlmaLinux or migrating from CentOS to AlmaLinux, most users will eventually run into the need to do some user account management. This is especially true if you only have a root account on your system and need to setup one or more normal users.

In this guide, we’ll show you the step by step instructions to add a new user on an AlmaLinux system. This can be done through both GUI and command line. We’ll be covering both methods in this guide, so you can pick whichever option is most convenient for you.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • How to add a new user on AlmaLinux from command line
  • How to add a new user on AlmaLinux from GNOME GUI
Adding a new user account on AlmaLinux

Adding a new user account on AlmaLinux

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CentOS Linux

CentOS vs CentOS Stream

Up until a late 2020 announcement from Red Hat, CentOS Linux had a longstanding reputation as a dependable and enterprise-class Linux distribution. And now, the main purpose of CentOS is shifting. Along with that comes a name change to CentOS Stream.

In this article, we’ll talk about this change of direction for CentOS, and what it means for the huge community of users and businesses that have relied on the distro for years. We’ll also see what’s next, as many users are left scrambling for a replacement so they can avoid switching to CentOS Stream.

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