IntroductionHow can a program make a decision? Can a program choose between two or more options. Actually, it can. This isn't some kind of advanced AI concept, it's just a matter of evaluating whether or not certain conditions have been met and choosing a response.
The way that a program can evaluate a condition comes down to true and false. If something is true, do this. If it isn't true do, that. The
ifstatement is the structure for a program to pose these questions and evaluate whether or not they are true.
ifstatements can check multiple conditions and provide multiple responses. They can be used to divert code down one path or another and control the overall flow of a program. They can also be used as a gating mechanism to determine whether certain blocks of code run. Have you ever gotten a message telling you that you needed to log in to continue? That was the result of
ifhas a very simple structure. The word,
if, is followed by a set of parenthesis containing a statement that needs to be evaluated for truthfulness and a colon. The following line is indented and contains the action to be performed if the statement is true. There can be multiple actions following
ifas long as they are all indented.
if (5 ** 2 >= 25): print("It's true!") print("If is awesome!")You can resume the normal flow of the program following
ifby returning to unindented lines of code.
You can, and should, use Boolean Operators in
if( (5 ** 2 >= 25) and (4 * 2 < 8) or (35 / 7 > 4) ): print("Booleans make If more powerful!")Boolean Operators allow
ifto evaluate more and more complex conditions in a single line of code. Chances of having more than one factor impacting whether a block of code should run are pretty high. Using Boolean Operators is an elegant way to handle this without needing multiple
ifstatements and many more lines of code.
ifcondition is false, the indented code below just doesn't run. Take a look at an example where that happens.
if (4 * 2 < 8): print("This won't run") print("This is isn't part of if, so it will")
ElseWhat happens if you want to run a piece of code only if
ifisn't true. You could use
notlike the example below.
if (not (5 ** 2 >= 25)): print("Bizarro!")That's weird and counter intuitive. It also creates problems with more complex situations. What if you want the program to do one thing if a statement is true and another if it's not? That's where
elseis placed on the same indent level as
iffollowing the code that you want run if
ifis true. It is also followed by a colon and indented code that will run if
if (5 ** 2 > 25): print("Your math looks a bit off...") else: print("That makes sense.")
elseis the best way to run code if
ifis false. It can also be a good way to make sure that things are going along the way they should be.
if ( (5 ** 2 >= 25) and (35 / 7 > 4) and ( 4 * 2 >= 10) and (3 ** 2 < 10) ): print("Everything looks good.") else: print("Your math is wrong somewhere.")
ElifPython supports multiple independent conditions in the same
ifblock. Say you want to test for one condition first, but if that one isn't true, there's another one that you want to test. Then, if neither is true, you want the program to do something else. There's no good way to do that using just
elifis a mashup of the words if and else and is used to test other conditions following the original
ifbefore the block defaults to
if (5 ** 2 > 25): print("The first one is right.") elif(5 ** 2 = 25): print("It was the second one.") else: print("Something went wrong.")That example is sort of nonsense because
>=exists, but you can see the flow of logic from it.
You can have as many
elifstatements as you need.
if (5 ** 2 > 25): print("It is greater.") elif (5 ** 2 < 25): print("It is less.") elif(5 ** 2 = 25): print("It is equal.") else: print("That makes no sense")Again, that's nonsense, but it still illustrates the point. That last
elsecould actually be left off because it's not really possible to ever get there. That is something else that you can do with
elif. If you know that one of multiple conditions must be met, you can use
elifto funnel your program down the right path.
Nesting IfYou can ask a second question only if the first question was answered affirmatively. It works that way in real life, and it works that way in Python.
ifstatements can be nested within other
ifstatements. This can actually be done indefinitely, and it doesn't matter where they are nested. You could put a second
ifwithin the initial
if. You could put it in one of the
elifblocks. You can even put it in the
a = 10 b = 15 c = 20 d = 25 if (a > b): if (a + b >= d): d -= c elif (a + >= c): c -=b else: b -= a elif (b > c): print(b - c) else: print(d)As you can see, the flow diverts on the first condition down a nested
if. The nested
iffollows the exact same pattern as any other
ifyou can divert the flow of your program and control the way that it runs in a logical manner. Using conditional logic, you can crate tests that your program will use to make decisions and adapt to circumstances and data values.
Table of Contents
- Python Introduction and Installation Guide
- Python Files and the Interpreter
- Experimenting With Numbers and Text In Python
- Python Variables
- Working With Number Variables In Python
- Python String Basics
- Advanced Python Strings
- Python Comments
- Python Lists
- Python List Methods
- Python Multidimensional Lists
- Python Tuples
- Python Boolean Operators
- Python If Statements
- Python While Loops
- Python For Loops
- Python Dictionaries
- Python Advanced Dictionaries
- Python Functions