Learn to use redirections, pipes and tee in the Bash shell

Operating System and Software Versions

  • Operating System: - Linux distribution agnostic


  • Access to a Bash shell



Python will let you know when you get your syntax wrong. It'll immediately fail and not allow your program to run.

What about when your code has a different type of problem? Those are called exceptions, and they tend to be harder to catch. It's up to you to recognize situations where hey might come up and catch them to prevent your program from crashing altogether.

Imagine a scenario where you need user input. Do you want your program to crash every time a user mistypes something or enters something erroneous? That's far from ideal. Since you know there could be a problem there, you can tell Python to look out for one, and recover gracefully.


Python is a powerful scripting language. So, why not use it to script Linux? The os module is Python's answer to handling many Linux file operations.

The os module allows Python to perform many of the file and folder operations that you'd typically carry out in the Linux command line. It enable you to begin swapping out Bash for Python, which makes for a much cleaner and friendlier scripting experience.

Loading OS

The os module is a Python module like any other. In any script where you want to use it, you can use an import statement to pull it in.
import os


The getcwd() method returns the current working directory in the form of a string. You don't need to pass it anything. It's roughly the equivalent of pwd.


You've worked with both functions and methods, but there's a different type of function, the anonymous function. Anonymous functions are just functions without names, and in Python, they are handled with the lambda operator.

Anonymous functions allow you to use the behavior of a function without having to create a function. This is especially good when you only need to use a function once or twice. It might sound like an unusual occurrence, but it happens fairly frequently when a function or method takes a function as a parameter.


Jut about any program of a decent size needs to be able to read and write from files. At very least, it needs to be able to generate logs. Python is also tightly integrated into Linux system administration and scripting. Again, reading and writing are important for managing a system.


Whenever you need some additional functionality in Python, you turn to the import keyword to pull in extras from Python modules. You've used common ones like the math module plenty of times.

Now, you will learn how to create your own Python modules and packages to compartmentalize your code. Modules are sort of like classes in that they make your code modular. While classes make code modular within a program and serve as the blueprints for objects, modules make all of your code modular across all programs and are utilities to be used just as they are.

Through the use of modules, you can create your own toolbox with all sorts of parts and pieces that you commonly use. Modules can include anything from variables and constants to functions and even classes. Because of this versatility, you can set yourself up to have everything that you need at the beginning of any project.


Polymorphism is yet another important aspect of Object Oriented Programming. No Warcraft fans, it doesn't have anything to do with turning people into sheep. That'd be much cooler. Instead, Polymorphism allows methods and functions to use classes with similar functionality in the same way.

Polymorphism cuts down on the amount of code that you need to write by eliminating redundancy in a logical and meaningful way. It relies on you, the programmer, to be clever in your design and harness similarities in objects.


Inheritance is yet another key concept in Object Oriented Programming, and it plays a vital role in building classes. It allows a class to be based off on an existing one.

When you first started writing Python classes, you were told to just put "Object" in the parenthesis of the class definition and not think too much about it. Well, now's the time to start thinking about it.

"Object" is actually the base class that all Python classes inherit from. It defines a basic set of functionality that all Python classes should have. By inheriting from it when you create a new class, you ensure that that class has that basic functionality.

In short, inheritance is a nice way of categorizing classes and making sure that you don't needlessly repeat yourself.


Encapsulation is one of the fundamental aspects of Object Oriented Programming. It allows programmers better control of how data flows in their programs, and it protects that data. Encapsulation also makes objects into more self-sufficient and independently functioning pieces.

The concept of encapsulation builds on what you did in the last two guides with classes and constructors. Constructors usually are usually used in close conjunction with encapsulation and actually aid in making encapsulation work seamlessly.


By now, you should be familiar with the way basic classes work in Python. If classes were just what you've seen, they'd be fairly rigid and not all that useful.

Thankfully, classes are much more than just that. They are designed to be much more adaptable and can take in information to shape the way they look initially. Not every car starts off exactly the same, and neither should classes. After all, how awful would it be if every car was an orange 71' Ford Pinto? That's not a good situation.

Writing A Class

Start off by setting up a class like the one in the last guide. This class will evolve over the course of this guide. It will move from being a rigid, photocopy-like, situation to a template that can generate multiple unique objects within the outline of the class.

Write the first line of the class, defining it as a class and naming it. This guide is going to stick with the car analogy from before. Don't forget to pass your class object so that it extends the base object class.


Classes are the cornerstone of Object Oriented Programming. They are the blueprints used to create objects. And, as the name suggests, all of Object Oriented Programming centers around the use of objects to build programs.

You don't write objects, not really. They are created, or instantiated, in a program using a class as their basis. So, you design objects by writing classes. That means that the most important part of understanding Object Oriented Programming is understanding what classes are and how they work.

Python is a big deal. It is one of the fastest growing and most in-demand programming languages in the world today. Python is so flexible and versatile that it is used for nearly every job that a programming language can do.

Python powers desktop applications, is used for Linux system scripting and automation, acts as a glue language between Linux applications, is a supplemental scripting language in large programs like GIMP, Blender, and Autodesk Maya, performs crucial scientific and mathematical calculations, and runs some of the web's largest sites like Quora, Reddit, and Dropbox.

Python is also very easy to learn and read. Top computer science programs like the one at MIT rely on Python to teach fundamental computer science and programming concepts to their students. Python can be read a lot like plain English and its structures and flow are consistent with many other programming languages. Essentially, it is the perfect balance between readability and user friendliness and programming power.


Code would quickly become an ugly and unruly mess if there wasn't a way to easily repeat and reuse it. You've already seen some of that with loops. They're great for repeating the same task multiple times right away. What if you wanted to reuse a block of code whenever you wanted? Well, that's where functions come in.

Here's another trip back to math class. If you remember, functions took in a number, did something to it, then outputted the new value. They were often represented in tables with the input on one side and the output on the other. Functions in programming are similar. Sometimes they take input. Sometimes they don't. Much of the time they return a value as well, but they don't always have to. In every case, they are used to repeat an operation whenever they are used, and that's the greatest similarity with the math concept.


You've already gotten acquainted with dictionaries, but just like the other data structures Python supports, there are methods and more powerful ways to use them. There aren't as many methods for working with dictionaries as there are for lists, but that's because dictionaries just don't need them. Plus, many of the ones that do exist, work to break down dictionaries into lists and tuples to make them easier to manage. So, those list methods can be used in conjunction with the dictionary ones to create an efficient machine for handling data.

Dictionary Methods

Items, Keys, and Values

These methods work to break down dictionaries into other data structures to make working with them much more manageable. Doing so also gives access to the methods of those data structures. Through these combinations of methods and loops, you can access and manipulate data with ease.


Somebody hit lists with gamma rays. Okay, so Dictionaries aren't the Incredible Hulk, but they are supercharged in what they can do. In other languages, dictionaries are referred to as hashes, associative arrays, and associative lists. It's probably best to think of them as associative lists because that's exactly what they are. Dictionaries are lists that associate two values with one another. To think of it in terms of an actual dictionary, they associate a word, or key with a definition, or value. They function sort of like a list with custom indexes.

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