Backdrop content management framework Docker image deployment and usage


The trusted docker image of Backdrop content management framework “linuxconfig/backdrop” can be used to instantly deploy Backdrop on your docker hosts.


The backdrop application runs on Debian GNU/Linux system featuring Apache web server, MariaDB ( MySQL ), database and PHP5. A new docker container based on “linuxconfig/backdrop” will expose port 80 which can be linked to the docker host port for an immediate backdrop blog access.

Configured MySQL users:passwords:

  • root:”empty password”
  • admin:”pass”

Configured MySQL databases:

  • backdrop

Exposed ports:

  • 80


The below command will download and create a new docker container called backdrop and link local host system port 80 with container’s exposed port 80.

# docker run -d --name=backdrop -p 80:80 linuxconfig/backdrop

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How To backup data with rsync command under Linux

As a system administrator or just a backup-conscious home user, sooner or later (usually sooner) you will have to deal with backups. Disasters do happen, ranging from electrical storms to drive failures, and one needs to be prepared. We cannot stress enough the importance of having copies of important data. While the whole concept of backup is too long for this article, we will focus on rsync for what’s called incremental backups.

Incremental backups are based on the idea that, once you have a copy of the data you need to backup, consequent backups of the same data should be incremental, meaning that you only update the backup copy with the differences since the last operation occurred, not create another full copy. We will detail here a setup we have at home for backing up important data, but the examples here can be used at larger facilities. Once you get started, you will know what, where and when you need.

If you have a backup server that’s up 24/7, you can create a cronjob to backup your data periodically. Since our example is home-based, we have a backup server, but since it’s not up all the time, we will show you how to do it manually. rsync needs to be installed on both systems, and that’s about it, no other setup chores must be performed, at least in simple cases. Please remember that you are not by all means tied to Linux or other Unix platform : rsync is available also for Windows. If you are worried about security, rsync is working over SSH and can be regarded as a secure replacement for rcp (remote copy) command, so it’s all good.

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User Data Encryption with FUSE-based EncFS filesystem


Any decent Linux distribution comes with an installation option to automatically encrypt user’s home directory. In case you do not wish to encrypt the entire home directory or perhaps you wish to encrypt some random directories on your Linux system you can use EncFS the FUSE-based cryptographic filesystem. EncFS will allow you to encrypt and decrypt any directory in a matter of seconds. It will reside on top of your current filesytem and provide access to any EncFS encrypted directory only upon entering a correct predefined password. This short tutorial will show you how to encrypt and decrypt your directories with the EncFS cryptographic filesystem.


Let’s assume that you are a heavy Laptop user traveling from one place to another. You also use ssh quite often and so you have generated ssh keypair. For your convenience you even generated a private key without using a pass-phrase ( never good idea ). Furthermore, you have copied you public ssh key to multiple servers for an easy access. The problem with this scenario is that once someone gets hold of your Laptop s/he gets instantly access to all servers using you private ssh key. In this article we will show you how to encrypt your .ssh directory and avoid such problem.

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Using Clonezilla: beginner and advanced approaches

Introduction and concepts

Every system administrator I know develops in time the habit of putting together a toolbox where, as time passes, many useful pieces of software get added up, as the recurrent need arises. Please do not imagine this in the most classical of the sense, as this is not about a carpenter’s toolkit, nor a mechanic’s toolbox. It usually is a CD portfolio with live CDs, installable most-used distributions, vendor-specific tools and whatever not. Of the (indispensable) live CDs, one usually sees in the aforementioned toolbox a disk cloning item. What does it do? It helps a tremendous amount when you need to save and restore a hard disk, operating system included, and by save I mean 1/1 copy with the possibility of restoring in a few minutes, despite the ever-increasing size of the hard drives offered by the market today, where the terabyte becomes more and more common.

Such software exists, and indeed it makes the lives of admins and users alike much easier and efficient. Unfortunately, companies tried to impose their own proprietary disk image formats, so that restoring could be possible only by using their tools. Fortunately, there is a FOSS solution that deals with this, offering a very efficient live CD and server for download, and that is Clonezilla, which we’ll talk about today. You are expected to have some knowledge on how disks work, networking and system administration. We will treat more advanced subjects a bit later on, but all you need to know if you are a beginner in those matters is right here.

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Steganography on linux example

Steganography Made Easy in Linux


Steganography is the art of hiding messages within other messages or data. Most commonly we see this utilized with pictures. This is probably encryption at its finest.
Mostly because it doesn’t look like usual garbled text that we are used to seeing with encryption. The changes made by Steganography are so slight the human eye cannot perceive them. Even trained cryptographers may have an encoded message inside a picture and be unaware of it. There is a very deep science to this. Usually this is done by flipping parity bits at the binary level. While it is great to learn how this works, sometimes it can be a very tedious job. Fortunately for us there is a tool that will take away most of the grunt work.

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GlusterFS distributed storage configuration

Configuration of High-Availability Storage Server Using GlusterFS

March 12, 2013
by Lubos Rendek


Whether you are administrating a small home network or an enterprise network for a large company the data storage is always a concern. It can be in terms of lack of disk space or inefficient backup solution. In both cases GlusterFS can be the right tool to fix your problem as it allows you to scale your resources horizontally as well as vertically. In this guide we will configure the distributed and replicated/mirror data storage. As the name suggests a GlusterFS’s distributed storage mode will allow you to evenly redistribute your data across multiple network nodes, while a replicated mode will make sure that all your data are mirrored across all network nodes.

What is GlusterFS

After reading the introduction you should have already a fair idea what GlusterFS is. You can think of it as an aggregation service for all your empty disk space across your whole network. It connects all nodes with GlusterFS installation over TCP or RDMA creating a single storage resource combining all available disk space into a single storage volume ( distributed mode ) or uses the maximum of available disk space on all notes to mirror your data ( replicated mode ). Therefore, each volume consist of multiple nodes, which in GlusterFS terminology are called bricks.

Preliminary Assumptions

Although GlusterFS can by installed and used on any Linux distribution, this article will primarily use Ubuntu Linux. However, you should be able to use this guide on any Linux Distribution like RedHat, Fedora, SuSe, etc. The only part which will be different will be the GlusterFS installation process.

Furthermore, this guide will use 3 example hostnames:

  • storage.server1 – GlusterFS storage server
  • storage.server2 – GlusterFS storage server
  • storage.client – GlusterFS storage client

Use DNS server or /etc/hosts file to define your hostnames and adjust your scenario to this guide.

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I2P – Anonymity for the Masses


For many years people have wanted to protect their right to privacy. As technology changes, it seems that privacy evolves away more and more. I2P is a protocol used for an encrypted multi-proxy on the Internet. While, this sounds simple, there is actually a lot of work going on with I2P to achieve this. Unlike some multi-proxies, I2P will allow you to tunnel many more applications through it than just web browsing, making it a very robust protocol.

I2P is available for all platforms, not just Linux. For this example I have used Debian Sid to perform the installation. With the exception of ‘apt-get’, these instructions should work fine with any Linux distribution. But if you experience problems, please seek documentation for your distro.

Legal Disclaimer

As I explain this to help you maintain priviacy, there will always be a few bad apples in the crowd. I do not condone this use of this article for anything illegal. Even if you are not passing illegal information on I2P, please check your country’s laws on encryption and it’s exportation before you begin.

The Problem with Tor

One would probably see I2P as an overkill without knowing the downfalls of its predecessor. Tor was once a wonderful multi-proxy used for hiding ip addresses and bouncing off servers all over the world. At one time, it was even trusted by most governments for strong anonymity. All of that seemed to change after an article was posted in 2600 Hacker Quartley. One author exposed how becoming an exit node for Tor allowed all the traffic on the Tor network to pass right through your machine. Becoming an exit node was the same as performing a Man-In-The-Middle attack. All one had to do was open up a packet sniffer and see all the traffic going through encrypted. Tor is still used by people trying to protect their privacy. But at the same time it has become a playground for hackers and governments monitoring what they consider suspicious. I2P has secured this problem while adding more functionality.

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introduction to wine on linux

Introduction to WINE


One of the main concerns for people making the switch to Linux is how to run the programs that they’ve become accustomed to on other operating systems, mainly Windows. For most, there are one or two programs of games that aren’t available on Linux, and that puts a major hold on adopting Linux full time. Thankfully, WINE can help to solve this problem. introduction to wine on linux

WINE is a piece of software for Unix-like systems, including Linux, OSX, and the BSDs, that allows you to run native Windows applications. WINE stands for, WINE Is Not an Emulator. That’s because it isn’t. WINE isn’t a full Windows install or some kind of VM. It is a compatibility layer that essentially translates Windows binaries. This extends to graphics libraries like DirectX 9, which is converted to OpenGL. WINE allows Linux users to run many popular Windows applications and games at similar performance to if they were running on Windows itself.

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How to rename VDI/Virtual disk on XenServer Linux


The Virtual Machine creation using template provisioner may spawn unnamed VDI disks. Usually, the VID description states Created by template provisioner at most.

uuid ( RO)                : 093e128a-2632-43bd-bb45-8f864bc69d6f
          name-label ( RW): 0
    name-description ( RW): Created by template provisioner
             sr-uuid ( RO): 3ef7b35b-5d39-7414-0c91-bbb281b9a521
        virtual-size ( RO): 21474836480
            sharable ( RO): false
           read-only ( RO): false

The objective is to set a proper name and description to VDI disk.

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How to rename VM ( virtual machine ) name label on XenServer


The objective is to set a new name label on a existing XenServer’s VM ( virtual machine ).


Privileged access to XenServer’s command line as well as configured ISO image storage containing an ISO image of the Linux distribution you wish to install.




Identify VM’s UUID

In order to set/rename VM’s name label we fisrt need to identify its UUID. List all VM’s and take a note of a relevant UUID. Example:

# xe vm-list
uuid ( RO)           : bad8e456-df88-435d-ba12-3f0f6e54b2c6
     name-label ( RW): Control domain on host: xenserver
    power-state ( RO): running

uuid ( RO)           : 699dcb0c-e897-5bd4-30c1-ab1dd9a3ca4e
     name-label ( RW): Debian Jessie 8.0
    power-state ( RO): halted

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WINE Installation and Configuration Tutorial on Linux

WINE Installation and Configuration Tutorial on Linux


There is a gap between Windows and Linux. That’s obviously an unpopular thing to say, but it’s undeniable, especially when concerning third party support. Games and professional applications like Photoshop and 3D modeling tools are either woefully under-supported or unsupported altogether. Things have improved over time, but there is still need for a bridge. That bridge comes in the form of WINE.

WINE Installation and Configuration Tutorial on LinuxWINE is not an emulator or a virtual machine. Rather, it is a lightweight compatibility layer that “translates” Windows applications into a language that Linux can work with. For years, WINE has been an invaluable tool for Linux users who just needed that one unsupported application to work. It has also been the answer for gamers looking for their favorite games on Linux, long before Steam was an option.

WINE isn’t perfect. It’s actually far from it. DirectX 10 support is spotty at best and DirectX 11 support is nearly non-existent. It is, however, in constant development, and the developers are always working to improve it. The WINE of today is miles beyond what it was just a few short years ago.

This series of guides will walk you through the tools that WINE provides for getting your Windows programs working on Linux. It does no rely on wrappers and scripts like PlayOnLinux because they aren’t all that reliable. Learning the way WINE actually works may be more difficult and time consuming in the short term, but in the long term, you will not be reliant on external sources to get your applications running. These guides start off with the basics and installation of WINE and progress through configuration tools like winecfg and winetricks. You will be able to create application specific configurations and use different WINE prefixes as well as being able to install Windows dlls and components to add functionality to your applications.

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