List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default). Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor –sort is specified. Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
- -a, –all
- do not ignore entries starting with .
- -A, –almost-all
- do not list implied . and ..
- with -l, print the author of each file
- -b, –escape
- print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters
- with -l, scale sizes by SIZE when printing them; e.g., ‘–block-size=M’; see SIZE format below
- -B, –ignore-backups
- do not list implied entries ending with ~
- with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status information); with -l: show ctime and sort by name; otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first
- list entries by columns
- colorize the output; WHEN can be ‘always’ (default if omitted), ‘auto’, or ‘never’; more info below
- -d, –directory
- list directories themselves, not their contents
- -D, –dired
- generate output designed for Emacs’ dired mode
- do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls –color
- -F, –classify
- append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries
- likewise, except do not append ‘*’
- across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C
- like -l –time-style=,full-iso/
- like -l, but do not list owner
- group directories before files; can be augmented with a –sort option, but any use of –sort=,none/ (-U) disables grouping
- -G, –no-group
- in a long listing, don’t print group names
- -h, –human-readable
- with -l and -s, print sizes like 1K 234M 2G etc.
- likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
- -H, –dereference-command-line
- follow symbolic links listed on the command line
- follow each command line symbolic link that points to a directory
- do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A)
- hyperlink file names; WHEN can be ‘always’ (default if omitted), ‘auto’, or ‘never’
- append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default), slash (-p), file-type (–file-type), classify (-F)
- -i, –inode
- print the index number of each file
- -I, –ignore=PATTERN
- do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
- -k, –kibibytes
- default to 1024-byte blocks for disk usage; used only with -s and per directory totals
- -l use a long listing format
- -L, –dereference
- when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information for the file the link references rather than for the link itself
- -m fill width with a comma separated list of entries
- -n, –numeric-uid-gid
- like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs
- -N, –literal
- print entry names without quoting
- -o like -l, but do not list group information
- -p, –indicator-style=slash
- append / indicator to directories
- -q, –hide-control-chars
- print ? instead of nongraphic characters
- show nongraphic characters as-is (the default, unless program is ‘ls’ and output is a terminal)
- -Q, –quote-name
- enclose entry names in double quotes
- use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, shell-escape, shell-escape-always, c, escape (overrides QUOTING_STYLE environment variable)
- -r, –reverse
- reverse order while sorting
- -R, –recursive
- list subdirectories recursively
- -s, –size
- print the allocated size of each file, in blocks
- sort by file size, largest first
- sort by WORD instead of name: none (-U), size (-S), time (-t), version (-v), extension (-X)
- with -l, show time as WORD instead of default modification time: atime or access or use (-u); ctime or status (-c); also use specified time as sort key if –sort=,time/ (newest first)
- time/date format with -l; see TIME_STYLE below
- sort by modification time, newest first
- -T, –tabsize=COLS
- assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
- with -lt: sort by, and show, access time; with -l: show access time and sort by name; otherwise: sort by access time, newest first
- do not sort; list entries in directory order
- natural sort of (version) numbers within text
- -w, –width=COLS
- set output width to COLS. 0 means no limit
- list entries by lines instead of by columns
- sort alphabetically by entry extension
- -Z, –context
- print any security context of each file
- list one file per line. Avoid ‘\n’ with -q or -b
- display this help and exit
- output version information and exit
The SIZE argument is an integer and optional unit (example: 10K is 10*1024). Units are K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y (powers of 1024) or KB,MB,… (powers of 1000).
The TIME_STYLE argument can be full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, or +FORMAT. FORMAT is interpreted like in date(1). If FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, then FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files. TIME_STYLE prefixed with ‘posix-‘ takes effect only outside the POSIX locale. Also the TIME_STYLE environment variable sets the default style to use.
Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and with –color=,never/. With –color=,auto/, ls emits color codes only when standard output is connected to a terminal. The LS_COLORS environment variable can change the settings. Use the dircolors command to set it.
- if OK,
- if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),
- if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).
Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.
GNU coreutils online help: <https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
Report ls translation bugs to <https://translationproject.org/team/>
Copyright © 2018 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <https://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.