- Lubos Rendek
ifconfigcommand has been deprecated and thus missing by default on Debian Linux, starting from Debian stretch.
# ifconfig -bash: ifconfig: command not foundThe new and recommended alternative for examining a network configuration on Debian Linux is
ipcommand. For example to use
ipcommand to display a network configuration run the following:
# ip addressThe above
ipcommand can be abbreviated to:
# ip aIf you still prefer to use
ifconfigas part of your daily sys admin routine, you can easily install it as part of the
RequirementsPrivileged access to your Debian Linux system is required.
IntroductionThe upgrade from Raspbian Jessie to Raspbian 9 Stretch is a relatively simple procedure. However, exercise caution, as there is always a chance to break the entire system. The fewer installed 3rd-party packages and services, the more likely you are able successfully to upgrade your Raspbian Linux system. apt-get update
- Remove unnecessary or obsolete packages
- Make a data and configuration backup
- Perform an upgrade directly using console
- Installed 3rd-party software on Raspbian Stretch 9
Warning:MariaDB is now the default SQL database in Debian 9 Stretch. This introduces a new database binary data file format which is not backwards compatible with your current ( Debian 8 Jessie ) database format. During the upgrade your databases will be upgraded automatically. However, when you run into some issues during or after the upgrade, you will not be able revert back! From this reason it is important to backup all your current databases before you proceed with a Debian 9 Stretch upgrade!
Fully Upgrade Current SystemStart by fully upgrade your current Raspbian system before you proceed with a Stretch upgrade.
# apt-get update # apt-get upgradeUpgrade any held back packages:
# apt-get dist-upgrade
System CheckLast, chance to check for any system inconsistencies. Perform database sanity and consistency checks for partially installed, missing and obsolete packages:
# dpkg -CIf no issues are reported, check what packages are held back:
# apt-mark showholdPackages
On Holdwill not upgrade.
On Holdpackages may cause inconsistencies after Stretch upgrade. Before you move to the following part, it is suggested to fix all issues provided by both above commands.
Update Package Repository to Debian StretchNext, update your
/etc/apt/sources.listto include new Stretch repositories.
# sed -i 's/jessie/stretch/g' /etc/apt/sources.listThe above command will replace any
Jessiekeyword occurrence to
Stretchthus effectively enabling new Stretch repositories. Once your
/etc/apt/sources.listis updated to included
Stretchrepositories, update your local package index with:
# apt-get update
Raspbian Stretch Upgrade SimulationUsed the bellow command to see what we are facing. It is a simulated dry-run thus not system changes will be implemented.
# apt-get --simulate upgrade
Rasbian Stretch UpgradeWe have come to the most exciting part, which is the actual Jessie upgrade to Raspbian Stretch system. During the upgrade you may be asked:
There are services installed on your system which need to be restarted when certain libraries, such as libpam, libc, and libssl, are upgraded. Since these restarts may cause interruptions of service for the system, you will normally be prompted on each upgrade for the list of services you wish to restart. You can choose this option to avoid being prompted; instead, all necessary restarts will be done for you automatically so you can avoid being asked questions on each library upgrade.Restart services during package upgrades without asking? The choice is about whether you wish the system to restart your services automatically during the system upgrade or you wish to do it manually or after the system is fully upgrade to Stretch.
When ready, execute the bellow commands to commence the Debian Stretch upgrade process:
# apt-get upgrade # apt-get dist-upgradeAll done. Reboot your system.
- Lubos Rendek
ObjectiveThe following article provides you with a simple to follow procedure on how to install video chat and voice call application Skype on Debian 9 Stretch.
RequirementsPrivileged access to your Debian 9 Stretch Linux system is required.
- Lubos Rendek
SymptomsThe following error message appears after a paste attempt is made using middle mouse button:
E353: Nothing in register "This error first appeared with VIM version 8:
~/.vimrcVIM configuration file:
$ echo set clipboard=unnamed >> ~/.vimrc
- Lubos Rendek
IntroductionThe following text will describe a configuration procedure of LEMP server on Debian 9 Stretch Linux. The LEMP stack described by the below guide will consist of:
- Debian 9 Stretch Linux
- Nginx Web server
- MariaDB or MySQL relational database
- PHP 7 scripting language
Once you have your bare bones, LEMP stack configured, consider a further hardening of your server based on the target deployment environment.