The following config will guide you through the process of enabling SSH root login on Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial Xerus Linux Server or Desktop. This guide assumes that you are in possession of root password and are able to login directly on your system as root user. Use the following guide, if you do not have a root's user password.
By default the root's ssh remote shell access is denied by default. Any attempt to remote login as root will result in
Permission denied message:
Permission denied, please try again.
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It is our firm belief that Linux, despite its advances on the desktop side, as well as on tablets, should be taught starting with the command line. That's because it's an operating system that borrows heavily from Unix(TM), and there was nothing more than a text interface on it at the very beginning. Studies have shown that, if applicable, one is more efficient on the command-line rather than using a graphical user interface (GUI). "If applicable" means that we're not referring at photo/video editing or some other task that requires a graphical environment. It means that when there is a task that can be solved either via the command line interface (CLI) or via GUI, the CLI way is more efficient. Another thing to be considered is the fragmentation of the Linux world. For example, OpenSUSE's YasT won't be available on any other distro, so it's a specific piece of software. This fragmentation is seen also in the CLI world, especially when it comes to the locations of various files, but we will make you aware of it, should that be the case. In case you're not convinced yet, remember that you don't know Linux, or any other similar operating system, until you know your way around its CLI. The power of Linux lies there, and if you want to make a career out of it, follow along: it's an interesting and fun journey.
Internal vs external Linux shell commands
You may be puzzled by this choice of words, and with good reason. But it's a terminology you will encounter often, along with the term "(shell) built-in" when referring to internal commands and perhaps "the rest" for the external ones. But before we go that far, let's make sure we're on the same page. The shell we're gonna work with is bash, as it's the most used on Linux distributions. That's not saying it's the best, but that's a subjective term anyway. I don't know of any popular and still maintained Linux distribution that uses any version of bash prior to 4.xx, so that's what we will use too. Regarding the ever-controversial distribution support, LPI seems to focus mainly on Red Hat and Debian or derivative distributions (e.g. Fedora or Ubuntu), so this is what we'll support as well. However, at this level at least, the distribution is less relevant: what is important is an up-to-date shell and distribution.
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If you ever wanted to have a personal robot then you are reading a correct article. This tutorial is a brief demonstration on how easily you can configure your personal or company robot, then soon after, connect it with one of available adapters like: shell, campfire, hipchat, irc, gtalk or skype. In this tutorial I'm going to teach you how to set up Hubot with its default adapter Shell. Although it's the simplest option, it's the solid foundation for your future modifications.
Correctly configured and connected Hubot can dramatically improve and reduce employee efficiency as well as give your company lots of fun. Additionally, It can provide your team with the newest rss feeds or send crucial notifications. Keep in mind, that Hubot is developed by Github team, so it's next pros for spending a while on investigations.
So what is Hubot ?
Hubot is open source, written in CoffeeScript on Node.js. It can be easily deployed on PaaS platforms like Heroku. Hubot comes preinstalled with several core scripts like math, ping, help, translate or youtube.
Additionally you can visit community repository which provides tons of other interesting scripts (i.a: ascii, coin, deploy, dice or jenkins). If this list still doesn't meet your expectations, feel free to write your own script using CoffeScript.
As a starter I wanted to present few examples which I hope will bring some light to this topic.
Hubot> hubot convert me 56MB KB
Hubot> 57 344 kilobytes
Hubot> hubot mustache me linuxconfig.org
Hubot> hubot translate me praktyczne
Hubot> "praktyczne" is Polish for " Practical "
Hubot> hubot image me niagara falls
Hubot> hubot convert me 5 years days
Hubot> 1 826.21099 days
Hubot> hubot math me 2(3+7)/4
Hubot> hubot die
Hubot> Goodbye, cruel world.
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You need Windows for a program you use for work, your favorite game runs only on Windows or you are a developer that works on some cross-platform project. And of course, you can't even think about giving up your favorite OS. Whatever the reason, you need Windows and a virtual machine won't cut it so all you're left with, if you don't have a spare machine, is dual-boot. I usually recommend against multiple-boot machines, but I can't argue with the fact that here are situations when the idea is very useful. So this is what this article is about: making sure you need a dual-boot system, acknowledging the requirements, making backups if need be and proceed. You are expected to have some experience in installing Windows as well as Linux, at least Ubuntu in this case, and some courage. But first let's make some concepts clear.
We don't want to lie to you: any task that involves advanced partitioning schemes isn't for the faint of heart. But it isn't rocket science either, and we're here to help you. Various operating systems have various partitioning schemes but since the partitioning concepts of the PC are so "smart", there are some things you should know. Every OS that I know of that is installable on the PC requests a primary partition to boot from. Linux is the most flexible in this respect, as you can have its' /boot or / on a logical partition, but I'm not so sure if your BIOS will be able to boot from it. Windows, Solaris and the BSDs absolutely demand primary partitions, with Windows being the most "oppressive" in that respect. So whenever you install a dual-boot system with Windows involved, install it first, as it won't ask you and overwrite the MBR. If you want to dual-boot Linux and BSD or Solaris, install Linux first. Now that we settled this, we will insist you make backups if you have other partitions on the target disk, and you still need them. Our setup will start with a blank drive, and we'll show you how it's done.
Installing Windows 7
As said, you need to install Windows first, and this is more than an advice, and it doesn't apply only to Windows 7 either. We suggest you don't try over-complicated setups, because your chances of having a system actually up and running in decent time are decreasing rapidly that way. Take note that this article is not a step-by-step how-to on installing Windows 7 and/or Ubuntu. We will only refer to the parts that involve partitioning for a successful dual-boot experience. So, when you will get to Windows' partitioning screen, here's a screenshot for you to get an idea:
So, since Windows asks for a minimal primary partition size of more than 12 GB (!) , I gave it that, it auto-created it's system one and left me the rest of the disk empty and blank. After installing finished successfully, I was prepared for the tricky part: installing Linux. No, I'm just kidding, it's as simple as it can be.
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You may consider this article as somewhat of a "part two" of the Command line programs for everyday use in linux article I wrote a few days ago. It's all about going step-by-step to get you, the user, proficient at the command-line and become envy material for your friends. The distribution chosen for this is Ubuntu, but these commands that are about to be exposed will work on any other Linux system you might encounter, and you will be warned when there are exceptions. What you will get is a how-to about how to accomplish various tasks using the command-line. And one of the advantages is that you can use these commands regardless of desktop environment or lack thereof. You are only required to have a minimal Linux knowledge base for this article, so get to your terminals and let's start.
The reasons you might want to go the command-line way can be coercion (your graphics driver started driver decided to stop working all of a sudden) or, better, because you don't want to rely on the distro-specific tools Ubuntu offers. Or you don't have a GUI at all because you want to install Ubuntu server and ... GUIs and servers don't mix that well. You don't want to be in a situation when you're deprived of the graphical UI and you start panicking because you have no idea how to do anything at the command line. This article is here to help you.
Configuring wired and wireless networking
In my experience, that's one of the most common scenarios when the new user starts sweating in front of a terminal: you have to start the system and realize that you have no Internet connection configured. What to do and where to start? The command you're looking for is ifconfig, and of course I recommend reading that manual page. But what you'll read here should suffice to get up and running, unless you have some exotic string-and-tin-can way of connecting to the outside world. First let's see if your network card (we will start with wired networking) is recognized by the system:
# ifconfig -a
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