There are variety of options for Dock customization on the Ubuntu 18.04 Gnome desktop.
Custom Dock panel on Ubuntu 18.04 Bionic Beaver Desktop
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First we will use the provided settings window to perform some basic customization. Navigate to Settings-->Dock if you wish to perform some basic dock customization such as auto-hide, icon size and Dock position on the screen.
For more Dock customization options we can use dconf-editor. dconf-editor is not installed by default but you can install it by openning up a terminal and entering the following linux command:
$ sudo apt install dconf-tools
Start dconf-editor from your terminal or by searching the Activities menu.
Next, navigate to: org->gnome->shell->extensions->dash-to-dock schema. Feel free to browse and play with any settings available on this page to customize your Dock panel.
All Dock customization can also be accomplished from the command line. For example the following set of commands will turn your Dock panel into:
Unity like backlit Dock panel on the default Ubuntu 18.04 Bionic Beaver Desktop.
$ gsettings set org.gnome.shell.extensions.dash-to-dock extend-height false
$ gsettings set org.gnome.shell.extensions.dash-to-dock dock-position BOTTOM
$ gsettings set org.gnome.shell.extensions.dash-to-dock transparency-mode FIXED
$ gsettings set org.gnome.shell.extensions.dash-to-dock dash-max-icon-size 64
$ gsettings set org.gnome.shell.extensions.dash-to-dock unity-backlit-items true
Do not worry if you mess some things up! In that case use gsettings' reset directive to reset any settings to their default value. For example the below command will reset the Dock icon size to default: