In this tutorial we will be creating an example desktop shortcut launcher for Skype application installed on Ubuntu 18.04. First, this guide will show you how to create the desktop shortcut launcher manually while the later example will use application gnome-desktop-item-edit command to simplify the desktop shortcut launcher creating process.
Before we can begin you will need the following information for any given application you wish to create shortcut for:
To obtain a full path to executable binary of any program use which command eg.:
$ which skype
In regards to the application icon, the choice is yours. You can either head over to /usr/share/icons/hicolor/ directory and search for any relevant icon to use, or simply download new icon from the web.
Create desktop shortcut launcher manually
Now that we have all the necessary information, create a new file Skype.desktop within ~/Desktop directory and paste the following lines as part of the file's content. Change the code where necessary to fit your application specific details.