Sometimes it is necessary to grant full user rights on an assortment of files in your Linux system. You may have dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of files on which a user needs read, write, and execute permissions in order to fully access and utilize them. In such scenarios, it can be useful to grant full user rights on an entire directory, which gives blanket permissions on all of the directory’s file contents and subdirectories.
In this tutorial, you will see how to grant full user rights to a folder and its contents on a Linux system. The process involves granting read, write, and execute permissions on all files within the directory, and optionally taking ownership of all files as well. We will go over a few different examples to cover various scenarios in case you would like to apply more specific or granular permissions to a group of files.
In this tutorial you will learn:
- How to change user ownership of a directory and its contents
- How to change group ownership of a directory and its contents
- How to grant read, write, and execute permissions for a directory and its contents
|Category||Requirements, Conventions or Software Version Used|
|System||Any Linux distro|
|Software||chown, chmod, chgrp|
|Other||Privileged access to your Linux system as root or via the
# – requires given linux commands to be executed with root privileges either directly as a root user or by use of
$ – requires given linux commands to be executed as a regular non-privileged user
How to Grant Full User Rights to a Folder and Its Contents
It is important to keep in mind that file permissions exist for a reason. If you are encountering a permission denied error, your first solution should not be to grant full user rights on tons of files. Remember to only use the minimum file permissions necessary in order to accomplish your task. This helps ensure file security across your operating system.
When it comes to granting full user righs on a directory, we have a few different options. You should select your option carefully from the list below, keeping in mind that you only need to grant the minimum permissions necessary. For example, there may be no need to grant
execute permissions on every single file in a directory, unless all of the files are indeed executable scripts.
If you only need to access the files, then
read permissions will be sufficient. If you need to edit the files, then
write permissions are sufficient. Use blanket permission statements sparingly, and only grant the permissions that are completely necessary.
Full User Rights Command Line Options
We will use the chown command to change file ownership, the chmod command to change individual file and directory permissions (read, write, execute), and the chgrp command to change group permissions. Depending on your scenario, you may only need one or two of the commands. Let’s dive into the different options below:
That’s all there is to it. You should now have full user rights for the directory in question, as well as all of its contents. Depending on your scenario, you may find that one option is more suitable than another, or you may choose to combine two of the options, or even all three. Linux allows us a lot of flexibility when dealing with file permissions, giving us the options for user ownership, group ownership, owner permissions, group permissions, and other user permissions. This way, you can feel free to implement the setup which works best for you while also ensuring that users are only granted the minimum permissions (for security purposes) needed in order to complete their tasks.
In this tutorial, we saw how to grant full user rights to a folder and all of its contents on a Linux system. Linux gives us at least three different ways to accomplish this task, and the option or options you choose will just depend on what kind of scenario you find yourself in. The simplest thing to do is usually just change ownership of the files, but this may not always suffice if you have multiple users that need to access them, in which case changing group ownership is more appropriate. We also learned how to change the read, write, and execute permissions for all files.