Using jigdo downloader is a smarter and greener way of downloading data from the Internet mirrors. In comparison to a regular download where you point your browser or wget command to a single mirror URL, jigdo allows for multiple mirrors where the main feature is to re-use a previously download ISO image of a lower version to use as base and thus only new packages not downloaded previously are downloaded.

For this reason using jigdo is often faster way of downloading debian ISO images. To start using you first need to install it on your system:
# apt-get install jigdo-file
Once the jigdo-file package is downloaded your can start using jigdo do download official Debian instillation images. All you need is the URL of the *.jigdo file of the image you intend to download. In the example below we download Debian Jessie KDE iso image. First start jigdo:
$ jigdo-lite
Jigsaw Download "lite"
Copyright (C) 2001-2005  |  jigdo@
Richard Atterer          |
Getting mirror information from /etc/apt/sources.list


In case that you need to find out the exact libc version installed on you Debian Linux system use ldd command. The output of this command will output libc version in its output:
# ldd --version
ldd (Debian EGLIBC 2.13-38+deb7u1) 2.13

The easiest way on how to check what Debian version you are running is to simply read a content of /etc/issue file. Example:
root@debian:~# cat /etc/issue
Debian GNU/Linux 9 \n \l
However, the above command may not show the current Debian update point releases. Thus you may get more accurate info with the following linux command:
root@debian:~# cat /etc/debian_version
Next, you can check for /etc/os-release release file:
# cat /etc/os-release
PRETTY_NAME="Debian GNU/Linux 9 (stretch)"
NAME="Debian GNU/Linux"
VERSION="9 (stretch)"

In this config we will install SugarCRM CE the community edition of customer relationship management software by SugarCRM, Inc on Debian 7 "wheezy" Linux.


The community edition of sugarCRM is licensed under AGPLv3. Current version of sugarCRM CE is 6.5.18. Head over to SugarCRM CE home page and download the latest full installation package or use the link and command below to download sugarCRM CE to your home directory:
# wget
Saving to: `'

100%[===========>] 21,267,418   722K/s   in 34s     

2014-10-20 06:09:54 (615 KB/s) - `' saved [21267418/21267418]

If you run Debian Wheezy 7 Linux as your main operating system and you wish to try open source real-time strategy and real-time tactics hybrid computer game WarZone 2100 then here is a short guide on how to install this game on your debian system.

First, download latest tar ball from official WarZone2100 git repository. Start by installing git and then download WarZone2100's latest source code:
# apt-get install git
$ git clone

Related sources.list repositories:
Wheezy, Jessie, Stretch, Buster

Security Updates

# /etc/apt/sources.list :
deb jessie/updates main contrib non-free
deb-src jessie/updates main contrib non-free

Australia Mirror

# /etc/apt/sources.list :
deb jessie main contrib non-free
deb-src jessie main contrib non-free

Related sources.list repositories:
Wheezy, Jessie, Stretch, Buster

Security Updates

# /etc/apt/sources.list :
deb wheezy/updates main contrib non-free
deb-src wheezy/updates main contrib non-free

Australia Mirror

# /etc/apt/sources.list :
deb wheezy main contrib non-free
deb-src wheezy main contrib non-free


The objective is to blacklist selected modules from loading.

Operating System and Software Versions

  • Operating System: - Debian, Ubuntu, Mint


Privileged access to your Ubuntu System as root or via sudo command is required.




  • # - requires given linux commands to be executed with root privileges either directly as a root user or by use of sudo command
  • $ - given linux commands to be executed as a regular non-privileged user


There maybe a time when you need to disable some modules from being loaded during your system's boot time. In this "how to" we will discus some of the few ways how to blacklist module including its dependencies, that is, disable permanently module from loading during the boot time.

First, we need to know how to list all modules currently loaded by your Linux system:
$ lsmod
ehci_hcd               40249  0 
usbcore               128741  4 ehci_hcd,ohci_hcd,usbhid
usb_common             12354  1 usbcore
e1000                  86156  0 
libata                140630  4 libahci,ahci,ata_piix,ata_generic

inxi the full featured system information script is currently not available for Debian Wheezy Linux. The tutorial will guide you trough the installation of of inxi system information script on Debian Wheezy Linux.

inxi Prerequisites Installation

# apt-get install gawk lm-sensors binutils mesa-utils hddtemp sudo

Fetch Current inxi source code

In order to install inxi on your Debian system you need to first fetch current inxi source files:
# cd /tmp/
# wget -Nc --no-check-certificate
# tar xzf inxi.tar.gz

inxi Script Installation

# cp /tmp/inxi /usr/local/bin/

inxi Manpage Installation

# cp /tmp/inxi.1.gz /usr/share/man/man1/

DAAP server is an Apple Inc. proprietary protocol to share media files over the network. DAAP server allows share media files among network connected devices where the central media share repository resides on main server. In this simple tutorial we will be installing and configuring DAAP server share using forked-daapd media server with support for RSP, DAAP, DACP and AirTunes.

In the first step create a media share directory and upload all you media files to this directory. In our example we are going to use /mnt/media directory:
# mkdir /opt/media
Next, install forked-daapd daemon:
# apt-get install forked-daapd

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Once the installation is finished confirm that forked-daapd is running:
# /etc/init.d/forked-daapd status
forked-daapd is running
and you may also want to check on what port is forked-daapd listening. The default socket is

If you have not installed wireless firmware to support your wireless network card during Debian wheezy installation you can do so later by enabling debian's non-free repository. Here is how you do it. First open your /etc/apt/sources.list file and change line ( your repository mirror may be different ):


deb wheezy main


deb wheezy main non-free

Once done update packages list with a command:

# apt-get update

Debian by default comes with Iceweasel web browser instead of firefox. Although it is recommended to use Iceweasel you may have a need to install firefox are here is a simple way how to install firefox on Debian wheezy by using Linux mint's debian import repository. First edit your /etc/apt/sources.list file and add the following line:

deb debian import

Update your package list:

# apt-get update

The above command will fetch mint package repository list. As a last step install firefox browser:

dpkg -l

List all installed packages.


dpkg returns a number of installed packages:

$ dpkg -l | wc -l

ask dpkg to return only packages related to php. This will include installed and non-installed packages:

$ dpkg -l *php*

Using dpkg with grep to see only installed packages

dpkg -l | grep php

dpkg -L <package>

dpkg -L will show whether the package is installed. If the package is installed dpkg will show related files and their locations whithin the filesystem.


$ dpkg -L ntpdate

$ dpkg -L php5-json
Package `php5-json' is not installed.

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