The following lines will describe a procedure on how to mimic Ubuntu's sudo privilege authorization system on Debian Linux. Sudo allows users to run programs with the authorization privileges of another user by supplying their own password for authentication.

If you have not done so yet, first install sudo package:
# apt-get install sudo
Once sudo is installed run:
# visudo
which allows you to edit the content of /etc/sudoers file. Change the content of this file as show below:
Defaults        env_reset
Defaults        mail_badpass
Defaults        secure_path="/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin"

root    ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL
%admin ALL=(ALL) ALL
%sudo   ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL

If you are looking for the netstat command and getting error:
bash: netstat: command not found
This simply means that the relevant package net-tools which includes netstat executable is not installed, thus missing. The package net-tools may not be installed on your system by default so you need to install it manually.

The package also includes aditional utilisties such as arp, ifconfig, netstat, rarp, nameif and route.

Related sources.list repositories:
Wheezy, Jessie, Stretch, Buster

Security Updates

# /etc/apt/sources.list :
deb stretch/updates main contrib non-free
deb-src stretch/updates main contrib non-free

Australia Mirror

# /etc/apt/sources.list :
deb stretch main contrib non-free
deb-src stretch main contrib non-free

The typical question after we install a new package on our system is that what are the actual files ware installed and what is their location. This may be even less obvious if the final executable name intended to start your program has slightly different name than the package its self. In the following example we are going to install a dummy package hello using apt-get command:
# apt-get install hello
(Reading database ... 7528 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../hello_2.9-2+deb8u1_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking hello (2.9-2+deb8u1) ...
Setting up hello (2.9-2+deb8u1) ...

Very useful tool to extract files from Debian package archive DEB (*.deb) is ar command. First, let's download a sample debian package hello_2.10-1_amd64.deb:
$ wget
Now, that we have downloaded our sample Debian package we can use ar command to list its content. This can be achieved by t option:
$ ar t hello_2.10-1_amd64.deb 

This article will describe an installation of the ownCloud file sync and share server on Debian 8 Linux Jessie. This article does not assume any pre-installed packages. Using the commands below you can install ownCloud on the fresh installation of Debian 8 Linux Jessie. Furthermore, we will be using external sources to install the latest version of ownCloud suite.

Let's begin by inclusion of the ownCloud repository:
# wget -q
# apt-key add - < Release.key # echo 'deb /' >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/owncloud.list
# apt-get update
Now install the owncloud package which will also fetch all required prerequisites such as mysql-server or apache2 webserver:
# apt-get install owncloud
In the next step we are going to configure database. Let's enable database to start after reboot and start the database:
# systemctl enable mysql
# service mysql start
Once the MySQL( mariaDB ) is up and running, we need to create a new database called owncloud. All mysql commands below require administrator user name and password. Replace root user if your administration to access to mariaDB database is different:
# mysqladmin -u root -p create owncloud
Enter password:

Beautiful Soup is a Python package for parsing HTML and XML documents and it resides within a Debian package named python-bs4. However, python-bs4 package is a default package on Debian Linux system for Python 2 version. Therefore, if your intention is to use Python3 as a default environment you will need to also install Python3 and its corresponding version of BS4 python3-bs4. Let's start by python3 installation:
# apt-get install -y vim python3
After a successful installation of python3 package make sure that python3 is set as default:
# update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/python python /usr/bin/python3.4 2
update-alternatives: using /usr/bin/python3.4 to provide /usr/bin/python (python) in auto mode
Confirm that python 3 is a default version:
# python --version
Python 3.4.2
All what remains is to install Beautiful Soup parsing HTML and XML package to match python version 3:
# apt-get install python3-bs4
All done. Test Beautiful Soup parsing HTML and XML with the following example script:
#!/usr/bin/env python3

from urllib.request import urlopen
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

html = urlopen("")
bsObj = BeautifulSoup(;

print (bsObj.title)


: When using apt-get or some other GUI package management application to install a new package on Ubuntu or Debian Linux the following error message appears:
W:Failed to fetch cdrom://Ubuntu 14.04 LTS _Trusty Tahr_ - Release amd64 (20140416)/dists/trusty/main/binary-amd64/Packages
Please use apt-cdrom to make this CD-ROM recognized by APT. apt-get update cannot be used to add new CD-ROMs

apt-cacher-ng is an alternative to a more robust apt proxy servers available such as squid-deb-proxy. If you are running a small home or office network look no further. It may lack some of the more advanced features but it can be configured in no time, that is, you are ready to go within minutes after initial installation.


Let's get started by configuring apt-cacher-ng server:
# apt-get install apt-cacher-ng
Enable to start apt-cacher-ng after reboot:
# systemctl enable apt-cacher-ng
and start apt-cacher-ng apt proxy:
# service apt-cacher-ng start

There are two steps to verify an authenticity of downloaded Debian ISO images from Debian mirrors:
  1. Firstly, we need to verify check-sum of the CD image content against its relevant checksums files whether it would be MD5SUMS or SHA512SUMS
  2. Secondly, we need to verify the actual checksums files for a correct signature using accompanied signatures such as MD5SUMS.sign or SHA512SUMS.sign
To get started, first download all relevant files including desired ISO images within a single directory. In this case we will validate the authenticity of debian net install CD image:
$ ls
MD5SUMS  MD5SUMS.sign  SHA512SUMS  SHA512SUMS.sign  debian-8.0.0-arm64-netinst.iso

Author:Tobin Harding
Task is to configure x86 bare metal machine as a docker host using Debian 8. You will need a network connection to the host to follow this guide. Also a connected keyboard and monitor.


  1. Host machine. I will be using an optiplex 760 but any machine will do.
  2. Internet connection. I will be using the net install Debian 8 image.
  3. About half an hour.


The automated build docker Nginx image “linuxconfig/nginx” can be used as a basic testing environment for a static websites deployments.


The image is build based on default Nginx webserver configuration running on Debian GNU/Linux. Nginx webserver run in foreground and listens on default port 80.


Create a directory and place your static website within.
$ mkdir html
$ echo "My Static Website" > html/index.html
$ cp -r /path/to/your/static/website/* html/

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