Wheezy, Jessie, Stretch, Buster
# /etc/apt/sources.list :
deb http://security.debian.org/ squeeze/updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://security.debian.org/ squeeze/updates main contrib non-free
# /etc/apt/sources.list :
deb http://ftp.au.debian.org/debian/ squeeze main contrib non-free
deb-src http://ftp.au.debian.org/debian/ squeeze main contrib non-free
Running Linux system inside a chroot environment allows a system admin to decrease an impact on a production server when the server gets compromised. Change root will change root directory to all current running processes and its children to a chroot jail. Testing of various package installations and server configuration in a chrooted environment can be another handy way how to utilize a chroot jail.
This tutorial will provide a reader with step by step guide on how to install Debian with ssh daemon inside chroot environment using debootstrap.
Install chroot environment
In the first step we will create a directory in which new chroot environment will reside. For convenience during the installation we also declare temporary bash shell variable CHROOT to hold a path to chroot environment.
# mkdir -p /mnt/chroot/squeeze # CHROOT=/mnt/chroot/squeeze
When new chroot directory is ready we will use debootstrap to install new Debian system within chroot environment. Change the architecture and debian version according to your needs. The installation may take some time as debootstrap will use your specified mirror to download and install core packages. Choose the closest mirror as it will rapidly reduce the installation time.
# debootstrap --arch i386 squeeze \ $CHROOT <URL OF DEBIAN MIRROR>
At the end of the installation you should seed output similar to the one below:
I: Configuring debian-archive-keyring... I: Configuring apt... I: Configuring libept0... I: Configuring apt-utils... I: Configuring aptitude... I: Configuring tasksel-data... I: Configuring tasksel... I: Base system installed successfully.
This short article describes the quick and easy way on how to customize, build and install Linux kernel under Debian or Ubuntu Linux. First, we will install all prerequisites then download kernel source. Next step will be customization and as a last step we will create and install a Debian package with new Customized Linux kernel.
Let's start with first step which is installation of all prerequisites:
# apt-get install bzip2 build-essential \ kernel-package libncurses5-dev
Kernel build and customization
Next step is to download kernel source code from kernel.org. Untar and cd inside the kernel's directory tree:
$ tar xvjf linux-2.6.34.tar.bz2 $ cd linux-2.6.34
At this point we will do the most important part of creating new customized kernel and building a Debian package. This is all done with a single make-kpkg command.
Optional step is to apply kernel patches before running a following linux command:
make-kpkg --rootcmd fakeroot --config menuconfig --initrd --us --uc kernel_image
- --us do not sign source
- --uc do not sign changelog
- --initrd perform any actions necessary for a kernel loaded using initrd
- -- rootcmd fakeroot command that provides a means of gaining super user access
- --config menuconfig will use menuconfig as a configuration tool where default is oldconfig
There are more and more Laptops nowadays which do not have a CD/DVD-ROM facility build in but are able to boot from USB memory stick. This small guide provides all needs on how to create a bootable USB memory stick to install a Debian without a need for CD/DVD drive.
Before you continue make sure that you have backed up all your data from your USB memory stick. After completing this guide your USB memory stick will contain a new partition table and all your data will be lost.
This guide also assumes that you have a running linux system and USB memory stick with minimal size of 512MB which you will use for the process of creating Debian boot installation USB stick.
Find USB device name
Plug in your USB stick and find its device file name by:
For the rest of this guide we are going to use /dev/sdb as our target.
WARNING: DO NOT COPY AND PASTE COMMANDS FROM THIS PAGE UNLESS YOUR TARGET DEVICE IS ALSO /dev/sdb !!
Create FAT16 partition
Next we need to create FAT16 partition. For this we can use cfdisk with -z option. This command will completely remove all your data from your USB stick, so backup first !:
cfdisk -z /dev/sdb
and create a first primary partition with the minimal size of 260MB and leave the rest unpartitioned or create second partition with some other filesystem for normal use of your USB stick. The size of 260 MB will fit a current Debian stable boot.img.gz and and Debian netinst ISO image.
How often do you need to install your favorite Linux distribution in a single year either virtually or using real hardware? How frequently it happens that you just want to test new release of certain Linux distribution so you install it on different partition or simply virtually using your current system as a host. How often do you need to deploy a server which is a complete clone of the one you configured yesterday. The installation part of any Linux system today is a very straightforward process. Nonetheless, the hardest and the most tedious part comes with a fine tuning, customization and configuration of your system's services as well as your own user environment. You can simply copy your custom system configuration files from one system to another but engaging in this concept this task can become quite disorganized, time consuming and most importantly error-prone.
In this article, we are going to take a different approach which involves a creation of a Debian package archive containing all required custom user and configuration files. First part of this article describes a rather simple way on how to create a Debian package archive containing all custom files followed by its installation. In the second part, we will look at the way on how to create our own very basic Debian Repository and use it to deploy a simple website including Apache webserver installation and configuration on a freshly installed Linux system.
In this section, we create and install simple Debian package. The package will accommodate some sample user data to serve as an example.
Creating a Debian Package
It took you a while to configure your desktop to have it the way it best suits your needs and convenience. In your custom environment, you may for example include some bash scripts, create several aliases using .bashrc file or changed default behavior of a vim text editor by altering .vimrc file. Furthermore, you may also have customized numerous system configuration files such as /etc/network/interfaces and so on. All this hard work can be saved within a Debian package and installed and removed from any system with a single dpkg command. As a first step we need to create a bare minimum skeleton for a Debian package. This is a fairly simple task as it only involves a single DEBIAN/control file. So let us start by creating a directory named "myenv". This directory will hold all data for our own version 1.0 Debian package.
$ mkdir myenv
In the next step, we need to create a control file:
$ cd myenv $ mkdir DEBIAN $ vi DEBIAN/control
It is said that the installation of Debian Linux is know as one of the hardest among all Linux Distributions. In this article we will see that this is just a myth, in fact it is very easy, even for beginners. All you need is basic understanding of disk partitioning techniques and a downloaded/burned netinstall image which suits the hardware architecture you intend to install onto Debian Linux, and a internet connection. Of course there are other requirements, such as a working PC with a CD-ROM drive and free/unpartitioned space on your hard disk. :'''NOTE:''' Do not download all Debian GNU/Linux 4.0 installation disks! You only need the first CD or go to netinstall CD.
Beginning of the installation
Make sure you set your BIOS to boot from the CD-ROM. Once you boot Debian, it will welcome you with an Introductory Screen similar to the one below.
At this stage you can navigate with the function keys F1-F10:
This guide will provide all necessary steps on how to create, bundle, upload, run and connect Debian ETCH AMI on Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2). For this guide we have used a Ubuntu 9.04. However, any other Linux distribution can also be used as long as it contains java and ruby packages. For more information about Amazon EC2 read here.
This page is not in any way an affiliate to Amazon Web Services. !
- Internet connection
- registered user account for S3 and EC2 services with Amazon Web Services (AWS)
- Amazaon Access Key ID
- Amazon Secret Access Key
- Amazon Account Number
- Amazon X.509 Certificate
- at least 1GB free hard drive space
- following packages need to be installed:
apt-get install ssh debootstrap ruby
sun-java6-bin libopenssl-ruby curl
Before we start
As you will see in the next sections of this guide many different files are required to successfully use Amazon's EC2 Web Services. For the sake of simplicity, we will create a directory "aws" in ~/ and store all necessary files there for a quick access. There will be three exceptions:
apt-get install linux-source-2.6.18 kernel-package \
linux-patch-bootsplash bootsplash libc6-dev
Patching Linux kernel
Uncompress Linux Kernel Source
tar xjf linux-source-2.6.18.tar.bz2
This guide provides a step-by-step installation of VMware-server-2.0.2 on Debian Squeeze Linux. Here we assume that user has already obtained VMware-server-2.0.2-<minor version>.i386.tar.gz installation pack along with a serial number provided upon the user registration.
- Linux debian 2.6.32-5-686 #1 SMP Tue Mar 8 21:36:00 UTC 2011 i686 GNU/Linux
- installation package ~/VMware-server-2.0.2-203138.i386.tar.gz
This guide describes step-by-step installation of GNU/IceCat web browser on Debian 6.0 "Squeeze". At the moment there are no pre-compiled packages for a Debian so we are going to do this nicely from command line by compiling GNU IceCat 5 from a sources code.
Step 1: Pre-requisites installation
First we need to install all pre-requisites. As a root use apt-get to fetch and install all required packages:
# apt-get install libgnomevfs2-dev bzip2 python zip \
pkg-config libgtk2.0-dev libnotify-dev libgl1-mesa-dev \
libasound2-dev libidl-dev libgl1-mesa-dev libiw-dev \
Step 2: Yasm ( Modular Assembler ) compilation
Although yasm is part of the Debian repository and it is available as a pre-compiled package GNU IceCat requires yasm >= 1.1.0. From this reason we will need to compile yasm from source.