Every desktop environment on Linux has its own notification system which implements the Freedesktop notifications specifications. Some of them, like GNOME or KDE, use their own built-in notification systems which cannot be replaced; others like Xfce or Mate, use more modular components (Xfce notification daemon and Mate notification daemon, respectively). Desktop-independent notification systems also exist (dunst, for example): most of the time they are used on minimal setups (e.g. when using a plain window manager instead of full blown Desktop environments).
There are thousands of commands that you can learn to use on a Linux system, but most users will find themselves executing the same few commands over and over. For users looking for a way to get started, we have compiled 20 of the most important Linux commands you need to know. These commands are some of the most useful, common, and essential tools that you will need in order to administer your Linux system or perform everyday tasks.
Having a reliable backup of our GPG (Gnu Privacy Guard) secret key is not optional: the key represents our identity, and loosing it could potentially be a disaster. Creating a backup of our keys and sub-keys is quite a simple thing to do using gpg, and the resulting files can be easily backed up on one or more devices. Electronic devices such USB drives or hard disks, however, tend to fail, and usually in the most inappropriate times; therefore as an extreme resort, we may want to print our keys to paper.
Neither Python nor Git need presentations: the former is one of the most used general-purpose programming language; the latter is probably the most used version control system in the world, created by Linus Torvalds himself. Normally, we interact with git repositories using the git binary; when we need to work with them using Python, instead, we can use the GitPython library.
Epoch time is a convention used on Unix and Linux systems that many applications rely on for calculating time between dates and other similar functions. Some Linux commands like
perl have an epoch option built in. An epoch denotes the number of seconds that have passed since the date January 1st, 1970.
PyCharm is a professional Python IDE (Integrated Development Environment) developed by JetBrains, which supports a lot of features like code completion, refactoring, debugging, etc. Two versions of the IDE exist: the “Professional” version, which must be purchased, and the free, “Community” version, which is based on open source software, and can be downloaded and installed free of charge. Various methods can be used to install the IDE on Linux.
pax is an archive utility somewhere between
tar. This is just because it is independent of the specific archive format, and supports a wide variety of different archive formats. It can perform simple tasks as creating a compressed archive of a selected directory or it can as much easily create a daily incremental backup.
Tmux is a terminal multiplexer: it let us run and manage multiple terminal sessions from a single screen. This is specially useful when connecting to remote machines using ssh, since, among the other things, it allows us to keep processes started from those terminals running in the background when we disconnect from the session (or logout and close the remote secure shell altogether), letting us re-attach to it at a later time.
Most of us longtime Linux users have the
ifconfig command seared into our brain, after years of repetitive use. It comes as a shock to some when they type the command and are met with an error message (ifconfig command not found). Indeed, the command has become deprecated, but it’s still possible to install ifconfig command.
If you need to search for one or more particular files, Linux systems have a few powerful methods for locating them, such as the
locate commands. Both of these commands have the same purpose, but they use a different methodology to find files. Searching for a file with a specific name can be done, but you can also search for files that follow certain naming patterns.