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1. Name

od - dump files in octal and other formats

2. Synopsis

od [OPTION]... [FILE]...
od [-abcdfilosx]... [FILE] [[+]OFFSET[.][b]]
od --traditional [OPTION]... [FILE] [[+]OFFSET[.][b] [+][LABEL][.][b]]

3. Description

Write an unambiguous representation, octal bytes by default, of FILE to standard output. With more than one FILE argument, concatenate them in the listed order to form the input. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

All arguments to long options are mandatory for short options.

-A, --address-radix=RADIX
decide how file offsets are printed
-j, --skip-bytes=BYTES
skip BYTES input bytes first
-N, --read-bytes=BYTES
limit dump to BYTES input bytes
-S, --strings[=BYTES]
output strings of at least BYTES graphic chars
-t, --format=TYPE
select output format or formats
-v, --output-duplicates
do not use * to mark line suppression
-w, --width[=BYTES]
output BYTES bytes per output line
--traditional
accept arguments in traditional form
--help
display this help and exit
--version
output version information and exit

3.1. Traditional format specifications may be intermixed; they accumulate:

-a
same as -t a, select named characters, ignoring high-order bit
-b
same as -t o1, select octal bytes
-c
same as -t c, select ASCII characters or backslash escapes
-d
same as -t u2, select unsigned decimal 2-byte units
-f
same as -t fF, select floats
-i
same as -t dI, select decimal ints
-l
same as -t dL, select decimal longs
-o
same as -t o2, selectoctal 2-byte units
-s
same as -t d2, select decimal 2-byte units
-x
same as -tx2, select hexadecimal 2-byte units

If first and second call formats both apply, the second format is assumed if the last operand begins with + or (if there are 2 operands)a digit. An OFFSET operand means -j OFFSET. LABEL is the pseudo-address at first byte printed, incremented when dump is progressing. For OFFSET and LABEL, a 0x or 0X prefix indicates hexadecimal; suffixes may be . for octal and b for multiply by 512.

TYPE is made up of one or more of these specifications:

a
named character, ignoring high-order bit
c
ASCII character or backslash escape
d[SIZE]
signed decimal, SIZE bytes per integer
f[SIZE]
floating point, SIZE bytes per integer
o[SIZE]
octal, SIZE bytes per integer
u[SIZE]
unsigned decimal, SIZE bytes per integer
x[SIZE]
hexadecimal, SIZE bytes per integer

SIZE is a number. For TYPE in doux, SIZE may also be C for sizeof(char), S for sizeof(short), I for sizeof(int) or L for sizeof(long) . If TYPE is f, SIZE may also be F for sizeof(float), D for sizeof(double) or L for sizeof(long double).

RADIX is d for decimal, o for octal, x for hexadecimal or n for none. BYTES is hexadecimal with 0x or 0X prefix, and may have a multiplier suffix: b 512, kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, GB 1000*1000*1000, G 1024*1024*1024, and soon for T, P, E, Z, Y. Adding a z suffix to any type displays printable characters at the end of each output line. --string without a number implies 3. --width without a number implies 32. By default, od uses -A o -t d2 -w16.

4. Author

Written by Jim Meyering.

5. Reporting Bugs

Report bugs to <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. >. Copyright © 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html >
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

7. See Also

The full documentation for od is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and od programs are properly installed at your site, the command
info od

should give you access to the complete manual.

 


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